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Entry version 6 (11 Dec 2019)
Sequence version 1 (05 Jun 2019)
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Protein

L-tyrosine decarboxylase

Gene

tdc

Organism
Enterococcus faecium (Streptococcus faecium)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:5 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Experimental evidence at protein leveli <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-tyrosine to produce tyramine (PubMed:30659181). Plays a role in acid resistance since tyramine production via tyrosine decarboxylation appears to provide a cytosolic pH maintenance mechanism that helps the bacterium cope with acid stress such as that encountered in gastrointestinal tract (GIT) environments. Therefore, may contribute to the colonization of the human GIT by E.faecium (By similarity).By similarity1 Publication
Also involved in drug metabolism, being able to catalyze decarboxylation of levodopa (L-dopa) to dopamine. In gut microbiota this enzyme is in fact exclusively responsible for the decarboxylation of levodopa, and thus reduces in situ levels of levodopa in the treatment of Parkinson's disease. It was shown that abundance of bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase in the proximal small intestine - the primary site of levodopa absorption - contributes to interindividual variation in drug efficacy and can explain the requirement for an increased dosage regimen of levodopa treatment in Parkinson's disease patients.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

pyridoxal 5'-phosphate1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes regulatory mechanisms for enzymes, transporters or microbial transcription factors, and reports the components which regulate (by activation or inhibition) the reaction.<p><a href='/help/activity_regulation' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Activity regulationi

Levodopa decarboxylation is not inhibited by carbidopa, benserazide, and methyldopa, that are three human L-dopa decarboxylase inhibitors.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section describes biophysical and chemical properties, such as maximal absorption, kinetic parameters, pH dependence, redox potentials and temperature dependence.<p><a href='/help/biophysicochemical_properties' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Kineticsi

kcat is 435.6 min(-1) for the decarboxylation of L-tyrosine. kcat is 342.4 min(-1) for the decarboxylation of L-dopa (at pH 5.0).1 Publication
  1. KM=0.2 mM for L-tyrosine (at pH 5.0)1 Publication
  2. KM=0.4 mM for L-dopa (at pH 5.0)1 Publication
  1. Vmax=4.4 µmol/min/mg enzyme for the decarboxylation of L-tyrosine (at pH 5.0)1 Publication
  2. Vmax=3.4 µmol/min/mg enzyme for the decarboxylation of L-dopa (at pH 5.0)1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Amino-acid metabolism

This protein is involved in Amino-acid metabolism.1 Publication
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Amino-acid metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the interaction between a single amino acid and another chemical entity. Priority is given to the annotation of physiological ligands.<p><a href='/help/binding' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Binding sitei292Pyridoxal phosphateBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section is used for enzymes and indicates the residues directly involved in catalysis.<p><a href='/help/act_site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Active sitei413Proton donorBy similarity1
Binding sitei433Pyridoxal phosphate; shared with dimeric partnerBy similarity1

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionDecarboxylase, Lyase
LigandPyridoxal phosphate

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
L-tyrosine decarboxylase1 Publication (EC:4.1.1.251 Publication)
Short name:
TDC1 Publication
Alternative name(s):
Levodopa decarboxylase1 Publication (EC:4.1.1.-1 Publication)
Short name:
L-dopa decarboxylase1 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:tdc1 Publication
Synonyms:mfnA_1Imported
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiEnterococcus faecium (Streptococcus faecium)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri1352 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiBacteriaFirmicutesBacilliLactobacillalesEnterococcaceaeEnterococcus

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004484951 – 611L-tyrosine decarboxylaseAdd BLAST611

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section specifies the position and type of each modified residue excluding <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/lipid">lipids</a>, <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/carbohyd">glycans</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/crosslnk">protein cross-links</a>.<p><a href='/help/mod_res' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Modified residuei385N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineBy similarity1

<p>This section provides information on the quaternary structure of a protein and on interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes.<p><a href='/help/interaction_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Interactioni

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/interaction%5Fsection">'Interaction'</a> section provides information about the protein quaternary structure and interaction(s) with other proteins or protein complexes (with the exception of physiological receptor-ligand interactions which are annotated in the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section).<p><a href='/help/subunit_structure' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Subunit structurei

Homodimer.

By similarity

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni151 – 152Pyridoxal phosphate bindingBy similarity2
Regioni382 – 384Pyridoxal phosphate bindingBy similarity3

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Coiled coil

Family and domain databases

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR002129, PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424, PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR021115, Pyridoxal-P_BS
IPR022397, Tyrosine_deCO2ase_bac

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00282, Pyridoxal_deC, 2 hits

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF53383, SSF53383, 1 hit

TIGRFAMs; a protein family database

More...
TIGRFAMsi
TIGR03811, tyr_de_CO2_Ent, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00392, DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

A0A481NV25-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MKDMDIKAVF IGDKAENGPV YKMLLNKMVD EHLGWRENYI PSDMPAISEG
60 70 80 90 100
DKLTPDYLAT RDHMIEVLDE VSQRLRAGSI PWHSAGRYWG QMNAETLMPA
110 120 130 140 150
LLAYNYAMLW NPNNVALESS MATSQMEAEV GQDFASLFNM ADGWGHIAAD
160 170 180 190 200
GSIANLEGLW YARCIKSIPL AVKEVLPEKV KNMSEWALLN LSVEEILEMT
210 220 230 240 250
ESFTDEEMDE VKAASSRSGK NIQKLGKWLV PQTKHYSWMK ALDICGVGLD
260 270 280 290 300
QMVAIPVQED YRMDINALEK TIRELADQKI PILGVVAVVG TTEEGQVDSV
310 320 330 340 350
DKIIQLREKL KDEGIYFYLH VDAAYGGYAR SLFLNEAGEF VPYASLAEFF
360 370 380 390 400
EEHHVFHHYV TIDKEVYEGF RAISEADSVT IDPHKMGYVP YAAGGIVIKH
410 420 430 440 450
KNMRNIISYF APYVFEKSVK APDMLGAYIL EGSKAGATAA AVWTAHRVLP
460 470 480 490 500
LNVTGYGQLI GASIEAAQRF REFLEQLHFT VKGKTIEVYP LNHPDFNMVN
510 520 530 540 550
WVFKVQDCTD LNAINELNEK MFDRSSYMDG DVYGERFITS HTTFTQEDYG
560 570 580 590 600
DSPIRFIERM GLSKEEWQKE QQITLLRAAI MTPYLNDDRI FNFYTKEIAK
610
AMEKKLNEII K
Length:611
Mass (Da):69,341
Last modified:June 5, 2019 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i8947487FAF220102
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

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GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

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DDBJi
Links Updated
MH358384 Genomic DNA Translation: QAV53955.1

NCBI Reference Sequences

More...
RefSeqi
WP_002342784.1, NZ_PUBI01000015.1

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
MH358384 Genomic DNA Translation: QAV53955.1
RefSeqiWP_002342784.1, NZ_PUBI01000015.1

3D structure databases

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

SWISS-MODEL Interactive Workspace

More...
SWISS-MODEL-Workspacei
Submit a new modelling project...

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR002129, PyrdxlP-dep_de-COase
IPR015424, PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase
IPR021115, Pyridoxal-P_BS
IPR022397, Tyrosine_deCO2ase_bac
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00282, Pyridoxal_deC, 2 hits
SUPFAMiSSF53383, SSF53383, 1 hit
TIGRFAMsiTIGR03811, tyr_de_CO2_Ent, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00392, DDC_GAD_HDC_YDC, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiTYRDC_ENTFC
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: A0A481NV25
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 13, 2019
Last sequence update: June 5, 2019
Last modified: December 11, 2019
This is version 6 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programProkaryotic Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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