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Entry version 9 (07 Apr 2021)
Sequence version 1 (13 Feb 2019)
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Protein

Bifunctional cytochrome P450/NADPH--P450 reductase ALT2

Gene

ALT2

Organism
Alternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus) (Torula alternata)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score:

Annotation score:4 out of 5

<p>The annotation score provides a heuristic measure of the annotation content of a UniProtKB entry or proteome. This score <strong>cannot</strong> be used as a measure of the accuracy of the annotation as we cannot define the 'correct annotation' for any given protein.<p><a href='/help/annotation_score' target='_top'>More...</a></p>
-Protein inferred from homologyi <p>This indicates the type of evidence that supports the existence of the protein. Note that the 'protein existence' evidence does not give information on the accuracy or correctness of the sequence(s) displayed.<p><a href='/help/protein_existence' target='_top'>More...</a></p>

<p>This section provides any useful information about the protein, mostly biological knowledge.<p><a href='/help/function_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Functioni

Bifunctional cytochrome P450/NADPH--P450 reductase; part of the gene cluster that mediates the biosynthesis of the host-selective toxins (HSTs) AAL-toxins, sphinganine-analog mycotoxins responsible for Alternaria stem canker on tomato by the tomato pathotype (PubMed:18435561, PubMed:19749175, PubMed:19449880). The biosynthesis starts with the polyketide synthase ALT1-catalyzed C-16 carbon chain assembly from one starter acetyl-CoA unit with malonyl-CoA extender units (PubMed:18435561, PubMed:19449880). ALT1 also selectively transfers methyl groups at the first and the third cycle of chain elongation for AAL toxin (PubMed:19449880). The C-16 polyketide chain is released from the enzyme by a nucleophilic attack of a carbanion, which is derived from R-carbon of glycin by decarboxylation, on the carbonyl carbon of polyketide acyl chain (Probable). This step is probably catalyzed by a pyridoxal 5'-phosphate-dependent aminoacyl transferase ALT4 (Probable). The respective functions of the other enzymes encoded by the cluster have still to be elucidated (Probable). The sphingosine N-acyltransferase-like protein ALT7 seems not to act as a resistance/self-tolerance factor against the toxin in the toxin biosynthetic gene cluster, contrary to what is expected (Ref. 5).1 Publication4 Publications

Miscellaneous

Gene clusters encoding host-selective toxins (HSTs) are localized on conditionally dispensable chromosomes (CDCs), also called supernumerary chromosomes, where they are present in multiple copies. The CDCs are not essential for saprophytic growth but controls host-selective pathogenicity.1 Publication

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes the catalytic activity of an enzyme, i.e. a chemical reaction that the enzyme catalyzes.<p><a href='/help/catalytic_activity' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Catalytic activityi

<p>This subsection of the 'Function' section provides information relevant to cofactors. A cofactor is any non-protein substance required for a protein to be catalytically active. Some cofactors are inorganic, such as the metal atoms zinc, iron, and copper in various oxidation states. Others, such as most vitamins, are organic.<p><a href='/help/cofactor' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cofactori

Protein has several cofactor binding sites:

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">'Function'</a> section describes the metabolic pathway(s) associated with a protein.<p><a href='/help/pathway' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Pathwayi: Mycotoxin biosynthesis

This protein is involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.By similarity
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in Mycotoxin biosynthesis.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection describes interesting single amino acid sites on the sequence that are not defined in any other subsection. This subsection can be displayed in different sections ('Function', 'PTM / Processing', 'Pathology and Biotech') according to its content.<p><a href='/help/site' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sitei278Important for catalytic activityBy similarity1
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section indicates at which position the protein binds a given metal ion. The nature of the metal is indicated in the 'Description' field.<p><a href='/help/metal' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Metal bindingi412Iron (heme axial ligand)By similarity1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/function%5Fsection">Function</a> section describes a region in the protein which binds nucleotide phosphates. It always involves more than one amino acid and includes all residues involved in nucleotide-binding.<p><a href='/help/np_bind' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Nucleotide bindingi512 – 516FMNPROSITE-ProRule annotation5
Nucleotide bindingi560 – 563FMNBy similarity4
Nucleotide bindingi591 – 623FMNPROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST33

<p>The <a href="http://www.geneontology.org/">Gene Ontology (GO)</a> project provides a set of hierarchical controlled vocabulary split into 3 categories:<p><a href='/help/gene_ontology' target='_top'>More...</a></p>GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

<p>UniProtKB Keywords constitute a <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/keywords">controlled vocabulary</a> with a hierarchical structure. Keywords summarise the content of a UniProtKB entry and facilitate the search for proteins of interest.<p><a href='/help/keywords' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Keywordsi

Molecular functionMonooxygenase, Multifunctional enzyme, Oxidoreductase
Biological processElectron transport, Transport
LigandFAD, Flavoprotein, FMN, Heme, Iron, Metal-binding, NADP

<p>This section provides information about the protein and gene name(s) and synonym(s) and about the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/names_and_taxonomy_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Names & Taxonomyi

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides an exhaustive list of all names of the protein, from commonly used to obsolete, to allow unambiguous identification of a protein.<p><a href='/help/protein_names' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Bifunctional cytochrome P450/NADPH--P450 reductase ALT2By similarity
Alternative name(s):
AAL-toxin biosynthesis cluster protein 21 Publication
Including the following 2 domains:
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenaseBy similarity (EC:1.14.14.1By similarity)
NADPH--cytochrome P450 reductaseBy similarity (EC:1.6.2.4By similarity)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section indicates the name(s) of the gene(s) that code for the protein sequence(s) described in the entry. Four distinct tokens exist: 'Name', 'Synonyms', 'Ordered locus names' and 'ORF names'.<p><a href='/help/gene_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Gene namesi
Name:ALT21 Publication
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section provides information on the name(s) of the organism that is the source of the protein sequence.<p><a href='/help/organism-name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>OrganismiAlternaria alternata (Alternaria rot fungus) (Torula alternata)
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section shows the unique identifier assigned by the NCBI to the source organism of the protein. This is known as the 'taxonomic identifier' or 'taxid'.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_identifier' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic identifieri5599 [NCBI]
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/names%5Fand%5Ftaxonomy%5Fsection">Names and taxonomy</a> section contains the taxonomic hierarchical classification lineage of the source organism. It lists the nodes as they appear top-down in the taxonomic tree, with the more general grouping listed first.<p><a href='/help/taxonomic_lineage' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaFungiDikaryaAscomycotaPezizomycotinaDothideomycetesPleosporomycetidaePleosporalesPleosporineaePleosporaceaeAlternariaAlternaria sect. AlternariaAlternaria alternata complex

<p>This section describes post-translational modifications (PTMs) and/or processing events.<p><a href='/help/ptm_processing_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'PTM / Processing' section describes the extent of a polypeptide chain in the mature protein following processing or proteolytic cleavage.<p><a href='/help/chain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>ChainiPRO_00004498501 – 1103Bifunctional cytochrome P450/NADPH--P450 reductase ALT2Add BLAST1103

<p>This section provides information on the tertiary and secondary structure of a protein.<p><a href='/help/structure_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Structurei

3D structure databases

SWISS-MODEL Repository - a database of annotated 3D protein structure models

More...
SMRi
A0A3G9HRC2

Database of comparative protein structure models

More...
ModBasei
Search...

<p>This section provides information on sequence similarities with other proteins and the domain(s) present in a protein.<p><a href='/help/family_and_domains_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/family%5Fand%5Fdomains%5Fsection">Family and Domains</a> section describes the position and type of a domain, which is defined as a specific combination of secondary structures organized into a characteristic three-dimensional structure or fold.<p><a href='/help/domain' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Domaini506 – 648Flavodoxin-likePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST143
Domaini688 – 932FAD-binding FR-typePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST245

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
<p>This subsection of the 'Family and Domains' section describes a region of interest that cannot be described in other subsections.<p><a href='/help/region' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Regioni16 – 483Cytochrome P450By similarityAdd BLAST468
Regioni484 – 1103NADPH-P-450 reductaseBy similarityAdd BLAST620

<p>This subsection of the 'Family and domains' section provides information about the sequence similarity with other proteins.<p><a href='/help/sequence_similarities' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence similaritiesi

In the N-terminal section; belongs to the cytochrome P450 family.Curated

Family and domain databases

Gene3D Structural and Functional Annotation of Protein Families

More...
Gene3Di
1.10.630.10, 1 hit
1.20.990.10, 1 hit
3.40.50.360, 1 hit
3.40.50.80, 1 hit

Integrated resource of protein families, domains and functional sites

More...
InterProi
View protein in InterPro
IPR023206, Bifunctional_P450_P450_red
IPR003097, CysJ-like_FAD-binding
IPR001128, Cyt_P450
IPR017972, Cyt_P450_CS
IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf
IPR017927, FAD-bd_FR_type
IPR008254, Flavodoxin/NO_synth
IPR029039, Flavoprotein-like_sf
IPR039261, FNR_nucleotide-bd
IPR023173, NADPH_Cyt_P450_Rdtase_alpha
IPR001433, OxRdtase_FAD/NAD-bd
IPR017938, Riboflavin_synthase-like_b-brl

Pfam protein domain database

More...
Pfami
View protein in Pfam
PF00667, FAD_binding_1, 1 hit
PF00258, Flavodoxin_1, 1 hit
PF00175, NAD_binding_1, 1 hit
PF00067, p450, 1 hit

PIRSF; a whole-protein classification database

More...
PIRSFi
PIRSF000209, Bifunctional_P450_P450R, 1 hit

Protein Motif fingerprint database; a protein domain database

More...
PRINTSi
PR00463, EP450I
PR00385, P450

Superfamily database of structural and functional annotation

More...
SUPFAMi
SSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit
SSF52218, SSF52218, 1 hit
SSF52343, SSF52343, 1 hit
SSF63380, SSF63380, 1 hit

PROSITE; a protein domain and family database

More...
PROSITEi
View protein in PROSITE
PS00086, CYTOCHROME_P450, 1 hit
PS51384, FAD_FR, 1 hit
PS50902, FLAVODOXIN_LIKE, 1 hit

<p>This section displays by default the canonical protein sequence and upon request all isoforms described in the entry. It also includes information pertinent to the sequence(s), including <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequence%5Flength">length</a> and <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences">molecular weight</a>. The information is filed in different subsections. The current subsections and their content are listed below:<p><a href='/help/sequences_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequencei

<p>This subsection of the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/sequences%5Fsection">Sequence</a> section indicates if the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> displayed by default in the entry is complete or not.<p><a href='/help/sequence_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Sequence statusi: Complete.

A0A3G9HRC2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
« Hide
        10         20         30         40         50
MAISSPSQAR SVGNPSPRCV KSSTYPFLGN ILDIDPDNFT KSLGDVYMIN
60 70 80 90 100
YGSYRDVIVT SRKVAQELCD ESRFCKLPGG AIDRMKRVIG NGLFTAETRD
110 120 130 140 150
PRWQSAHRVI APLFNPMRIR GMMDDMRDVC EQMCLRWARF GPGVPIKICD
160 170 180 190 200
EMTKLTLDTI ALCTVDHRFN SFYRPDGIEE PFAEAVVNVM TDSLIQSNLP
210 220 230 240 250
DWINNWVRFR SMNKFNRQAD ELRHAIEELI ESRRKNPVDR NDLLNAMLSH
260 270 280 290 300
EDPETGQRLS DELVVDNLLT FFIAGHETTS SLLSFCMYYL LECPDVLQKA
310 320 330 340 350
RAEVHATVGT STIMPEHLSK LPYLESVLRE TLRLRDPGPG FFVKPLRDDV
360 370 380 390 400
IAGKYFVKKD QSIFIVFDSV HRDPDVYGDD ADEFRPERMS QEKFDQLPPC
410 420 430 440 450
AYKPFGNGVR ACIGRPFAMQ QAILAVAMIL QHFDLIKDES YKLKIHVTMT
460 470 480 490 500
VRPIGLTMKV RPREGLRATD VNLRMHQASG TATPKPLASG TDGSMLTVTK
510 520 530 540 550
NGPMHLAIVH ASNSGTSEAL AGLLASNAVD RGLGVKSISV ANDIVEKLPR
560 570 580 590 600
DVPVVIITAS YNGEPSRNAA DFVSWLKSTK QHELEGVRYA VFGCGHRDWA
610 620 630 640 650
SSLFAVPKLI DSLLSTNGAE QIAQMGTSDT GGSTDIYSDF EDWTTKFLFP
660 670 680 690 700
YLNSKQEMKD TKLNSGADTR DVDLHVSLGK PPRVAMRKGF AAATVTKNRS
710 720 730 740 750
LSAPGVPEKC ELELCLPDGF TYKAGDHLQI LPRNSSNDVQ SVLRHFHLEA
760 770 780 790 800
ETLVSIQSAH RNKRLGLPLD VPIMASELFA AYVELGRTAS SRNIHVLAGL
810 820 830 840 850
VRSDKPKIKR ILLSLANGES YKTEVLDKRI SVLDLLKQFP DIEISLAGFL
860 870 880 890 900
SLLMPIRPRS YSFSSGPNWK PGFATLTYTV VGAGKLVSKA KMTEHVAMSM
910 920 930 940 950
RGGLASTFLS TLSARDDLYV SLDPASPSFY DDQSVSCPII MIAAGTGIAP
960 970 980 990 1000
FIGFLQERKL SLAHTALLQG SKKAGPYART LLFFGCRGPA LDSLYTEELA
1010 1020 1030 1040 1050
AFEADGLVEV RRAFSRDHTA AGSNGCKYVD QRLAASAEEL VELWRLGARV
1060 1070 1080 1090 1100
FVCGGKKMAN NVFDVLGPLF HEADKLDQKT AEDDVGKWRT TLGKGRYAEE

IFI
Length:1,103
Mass (Da):122,186
Last modified:February 13, 2019 - v1
<p>The checksum is a form of redundancy check that is calculated from the sequence. It is useful for tracking sequence updates.</p> <p>It should be noted that while, in theory, two different sequences could have the same checksum value, the likelihood that this would happen is extremely low.</p> <p>However UniProtKB may contain entries with identical sequences in case of multiple genes (paralogs).</p> <p>The checksum is computed as the sequence 64-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check value (CRC64) using the generator polynomial: x<sup>64</sup> + x<sup>4</sup> + x<sup>3</sup> + x + 1. The algorithm is described in the ISO 3309 standard. </p> <p class="publication">Press W.H., Flannery B.P., Teukolsky S.A. and Vetterling W.T.<br /> <strong>Cyclic redundancy and other checksums</strong><br /> <a href="http://www.nrbook.com/b/bookcpdf.php">Numerical recipes in C 2nd ed., pp896-902, Cambridge University Press (1993)</a>)</p> Checksum:i4F9EDCD8CCE80AE5
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:

EMBL nucleotide sequence database

More...
EMBLi

GenBank nucleotide sequence database

More...
GenBanki

DNA Data Bank of Japan; a nucleotide sequence database

More...
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB969680 Genomic DNA Translation: BBG74264.1

<p>This section provides links to proteins that are similar to the protein sequence(s) described in this entry at different levels of sequence identity thresholds (100%, 90% and 50%) based on their membership in UniProt Reference Clusters (<a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/uniref">UniRef</a>).<p><a href='/help/similar_proteins_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Similar proteinsi

<p>This section is used to point to information related to entries and found in data collections other than UniProtKB.<p><a href='/help/cross_references_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB969680 Genomic DNA Translation: BBG74264.1

3D structure databases

SMRiA0A3G9HRC2
ModBaseiSearch...

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.630.10, 1 hit
1.20.990.10, 1 hit
3.40.50.360, 1 hit
3.40.50.80, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR023206, Bifunctional_P450_P450_red
IPR003097, CysJ-like_FAD-binding
IPR001128, Cyt_P450
IPR017972, Cyt_P450_CS
IPR002401, Cyt_P450_E_grp-I
IPR036396, Cyt_P450_sf
IPR017927, FAD-bd_FR_type
IPR008254, Flavodoxin/NO_synth
IPR029039, Flavoprotein-like_sf
IPR039261, FNR_nucleotide-bd
IPR023173, NADPH_Cyt_P450_Rdtase_alpha
IPR001433, OxRdtase_FAD/NAD-bd
IPR017938, Riboflavin_synthase-like_b-brl
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00667, FAD_binding_1, 1 hit
PF00258, Flavodoxin_1, 1 hit
PF00175, NAD_binding_1, 1 hit
PF00067, p450, 1 hit
PIRSFiPIRSF000209, Bifunctional_P450_P450R, 1 hit
PRINTSiPR00463, EP450I
PR00385, P450
SUPFAMiSSF48264, SSF48264, 1 hit
SSF52218, SSF52218, 1 hit
SSF52343, SSF52343, 1 hit
SSF63380, SSF63380, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00086, CYTOCHROME_P450, 1 hit
PS51384, FAD_FR, 1 hit
PS50902, FLAVODOXIN_LIKE, 1 hit

ProtoNet; Automatic hierarchical classification of proteins

More...
ProtoNeti
Search...

MobiDB: a database of protein disorder and mobility annotations

More...
MobiDBi
Search...

<p>This section provides general information on the entry.<p><a href='/help/entry_information_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry informationi

<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides a mnemonic identifier for a UniProtKB entry, but it is not a stable identifier. Each reviewed entry is assigned a unique entry name upon integration into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot.<p><a href='/help/entry_name' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry nameiALT2_ALTAL
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section provides one or more accession number(s). These are stable identifiers and should be used to cite UniProtKB entries. Upon integration into UniProtKB, each entry is assigned a unique accession number, which is called 'Primary (citable) accession number'.<p><a href='/help/accession_numbers' target='_top'>More...</a></p>AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: A0A3G9HRC2
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section shows the date of integration of the entry into UniProtKB, the date of the last sequence update and the date of the last annotation modification ('Last modified'). The version number for both the entry and the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/help/canonical%5Fand%5Fisoforms">canonical sequence</a> are also displayed.<p><a href='/help/entry_history' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: June 17, 2020
Last sequence update: February 13, 2019
Last modified: April 7, 2021
This is version 9 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
<p>This subsection of the 'Entry information' section indicates whether the entry has been manually annotated and reviewed by UniProtKB curators or not, in other words, if the entry belongs to the Swiss-Prot section of UniProtKB (<strong>reviewed</strong>) or to the computer-annotated TrEMBL section (<strong>unreviewed</strong>).<p><a href='/help/entry_status' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programFungal Protein Annotation Program

<p>This section contains any relevant information that doesn't fit in any other defined sections<p><a href='/help/miscellaneous_section' target='_top'>More...</a></p>Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families
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