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Protein Vpu



Human immunodeficiency virus 1
Unreviewed-Annotation score: -Protein inferred from homologyi


Enhances virion budding by targeting host CD4 and Tetherin/BST2 to proteasome degradation. Degradation of CD4 prevents any unwanted premature interactions between viral Env and its host receptor CD4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. Degradation of antiretroviral protein Tetherin/BST2 is important for virion budding, as BST2 tethers new viral particles to the host cell membrane. Mechanistically, Vpu bridges either CD4 or BST2 to BTRC, a substrate recognition subunit of the Skp1/Cullin/F-box protein E3 ubiquitin ligase, induces their ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation. The alteration of the E3 ligase specificity by Vpu seems to promote the degradation of host IKBKB, leading to NF-kappa-B down-regulation and subsequent apoptosis. Ion channel activity has also been suggested, however, formation of cation-selective channel has been reconstituted ex-vivo in lipid bilayers. It is thus unsure that this activity plays a role in vivo.UniRule annotation

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi


Molecular functionIon channelUniRule annotation
Biological processApoptosisUniRule annotation, Host-virus interactionUniRule annotation, Ion transport, Transport

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein VpuUniRule annotation
Alternative name(s):
U ORF proteinUniRule annotation
Viral protein UUniRule annotation
Gene namesi
Name:vpuUniRule annotationImported
OrganismiHuman immunodeficiency virus 1Imported
Taxonomic identifieri11676 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiVirusesOrterviralesRetroviridaeOrthoretrovirinaeLentivirus
Virus hostiHomo sapiens (Human) [TaxID: 9606]

Subcellular locationi

  • Host membrane UniRule annotation; Single-pass type I membrane protein UniRule annotation


Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Transmembranei6 – 28HelicalUniRule annotationAdd BLAST23

GO - Cellular componenti

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Host membraneUniRule annotation, Membrane


GO - Molecular functioni

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the HIV-1 VPU protein family.UniRule annotation

Keywords - Domaini

Transmembrane, Transmembrane helixUniRule annotation

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di1.10.195.10, 1 hit
HAMAPiMF_04082 HIV_VPU, 1 hit
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR008187 Vpu
IPR009032 Vpu_cyt_dom_sf
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00558 Vpu, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF57647 SSF57647, 1 hit


Sequence statusi: Complete.

A0A1L5K1H2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

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        10         20         30         40         50
60 70 80
Mass (Da):9,086
Last modified:March 15, 2017 - v1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
Links Updated
KY057570 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21891.1
KY057572 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21907.1
KY057573 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21915.1
KY057574 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21923.1
KY057575 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21931.1
KY057576 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21939.1
KY057577 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21947.1
KY057578 Genomic RNA Translation: APO21955.1
KY748393 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58235.1
KY748394 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58243.1
KY748395 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58251.1
KY748396 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58259.1
KY748398 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58275.1
KY748399 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58283.1
KY748400 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58291.1
KY748401 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58299.1
KY748402 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58307.1
KY748403 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58315.1
KY748404 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58323.1
KY748405 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58331.1
KY748406 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58339.1
KY748407 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58347.1
KY748408 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58355.1
KY748409 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58363.1
KY748410 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58371.1
KY748411 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58379.1
KY748412 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58387.1
KY748413 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58395.1
KY748414 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58403.1
KY748415 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58411.1
KY748416 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58419.1
KY748417 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58427.1
KY748418 Genomic RNA Translation: AQY58435.1

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiA0A1L5K1H2_9HIV1
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: A0A1L5K1H2
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/TrEMBL: March 15, 2017
Last sequence update: March 15, 2017
Last modified: July 18, 2018
This is version 15 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiUnreviewed (UniProtKB/TrEMBL)

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