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Overview

StatusReference proteome
Proteinsi73,099
Gene counti - Download one protein sequence per gene (FASTA)
Proteome IDiUP000005640
Taxonomy9606 - Homo sapiens
Last modifiedJune 27, 2018
Genome assembly and annotationi GCA_000001405.27 from Ensembl

Homo sapiens (Homo sapiens sapiens) or modern humans are the only living species of the evolutionary branch of great apes known as hominids. Divergence of early humans from chimpanzees and gorillas is estimated to have occurred between 4 and 8 million years ago. The genus Homo (Homo habilis) appeared in Africa around 2.3 million years ago and shows the first signs of stone tool usage. The exact lineage of Homo species ie: H. habilis/H. ergaster to H. erectus to H. rhodesiensis/H.heidelbergensis to H. sapiens is still hotly disputed. However, continuing evolution and in particular larger brain size and complexity culminates in Homo sapiens. The first anatomically modern humans appear in the fossil record around 200,000 years ago. Modern humans migrated across the globe essentially as hunter-gatherers until around 12,000 years ago when the practice of agriculture and animal domestication enabled large populations to grow leading to the development of civilizations. Overall life expectancy in Europe is 81 years.

Componentsi

Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Proteins
Chromosome 15720
Chromosome 24703
Chromosome 34215
Chromosome 42710
Chromosome 53031
Chromosome 63735
Chromosome 73278
Chromosome 82676
Chromosome 92155
Chromosome 102102
Chromosome 114812
Chromosome 124345
Chromosome 13877
Chromosome 142829
Chromosome 152578
Chromosome 163901
Chromosome 175084
Chromosome 181250
Chromosome 196034
Chromosome 201545
Chromosome 21632
Chromosome 221610
Chromosome X2118
Chromosome Y84
Mitochondrion14
Unplaced
1070

Publications

  1. "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 8."
    Nusbaum C., Mikkelsen T.S., Zody M.C., Asakawa S., Taudien S., Garber M., Kodira C.D., Schueler M.G., Shimizu A., Whittaker C.A., Chang J.L., Cuomo C.A., Dewar K., FitzGerald M.G., Yang X., Allen N.R., Anderson S., Asakawa T.
    Lander E.S.
    Nature 2006:331-335(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  2. "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9."
    Humphray S.J., Oliver K., Hunt A.R., Plumb R.W., Loveland J.E., Howe K.L., Andrews T.D., Searle S., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Jones M.C., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Ashwell R.I.S., Babbage A.K., Babbage S., Bagguley C.L.
    Dunham I.
    Nature 2004:369-374(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  3. "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 10."
    Deloukas P., Earthrowl M.E., Grafham D.V., Rubenfield M., French L., Steward C.A., Sims S.K., Jones M.C., Searle S., Scott C., Howe K., Hunt S.E., Andrews T.D., Gilbert J.G.R., Swarbreck D., Ashurst J.L., Taylor A., Battles J.
    Rogers J.
    Nature 2004:375-381(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  4. "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 14."
    Heilig R., Eckenberg R., Petit J.-L., Fonknechten N., Da Silva C., Cattolico L., Levy M., Barbe V., De Berardinis V., Ureta-Vidal A., Pelletier E., Vico V., Anthouard V., Rowen L., Madan A., Qin S., Sun H., Du H.
    Weissenbach J.
    Nature 2003:601-607(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  5. "Analysis of the DNA sequence and duplication history of human chromosome 15."
    Zody M.C., Garber M., Sharpe T., Young S.K., Rowen L., O'Neill K., Whittaker C.A., Kamal M., Chang J.L., Cuomo C.A., Dewar K., FitzGerald M.G., Kodira C.D., Madan A., Qin S., Yang X., Abbasi N., Abouelleil A.
    Nusbaum C.
    Nature 2006:671-675(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  6. "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 20."
    Deloukas P., Matthews L.H., Ashurst J.L., Burton J., Gilbert J.G.R., Jones M., Stavrides G., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C.L., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beard L.M., Beare D.M., Beasley O.P., Bird C.P., Blakey S.E.
    Rogers J.
    Nature 2001:865-871(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  7. "The finished DNA sequence of human chromosome 12."
    Scherer S.E., Muzny D.M., Buhay C.J., Chen R., Cree A., Ding Y., Dugan-Rocha S., Gill R., Gunaratne P., Harris R.A., Hawes A.C., Hernandez J., Hodgson A.V., Hume J., Jackson A., Khan Z.M., Kovar-Smith C., Lewis L.R.
    null.
    Nature 2006:346-351(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  8. "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome."
    Ross M.T., Grafham D.V., Coffey A.J., Scherer S., McLay K., Muzny D., Platzer M., Howell G.R., Burrows C., Bird C.P., Frankish A., Lovell F.L., Howe K.L., Ashurst J.L., Fulton R.S., Sudbrak R., Wen G., Jones M.C.
    Bentley D.R.
    Nature 2005:325-337(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  9. "The DNA sequence, annotation and analysis of human chromosome 3."
    Muzny D.M., Scherer S.E., Kaul R., Wang J., Yu J., Sudbrak R., Buhay C.J., Chen R., Cree A., Ding Y., Dugan-Rocha S., Gill R., Gunaratne P., Harris R.A., Hawes A.C., Hernandez J., Hodgson A.V., Hume J.
    Gibbs R.A.
    Nature 2006:1194-1198(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  10. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 22."
    Dunham I., Hunt A.R., Collins J.E., Bruskiewich R., Beare D.M., Clamp M., Smink L.J., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C., Bailey J., Barlow K.F., Bates K.N., Beasley O.P., Bird C.P., Blakey S.E., Bridgeman A.M.
    Wright H.
    Nature 1999:489-495(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  11. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 21."
    Hattori M., Fujiyama A., Taylor T.D., Watanabe H., Yada T., Park H.-S., Toyoda A., Ishii K., Totoki Y., Choi D.-K., Groner Y., Soeda E., Ohki M., Takagi T., Sakaki Y., Taudien S., Blechschmidt K., Polley A.
    Yaspo M.-L.
    Nature 2000:311-319(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  12. "DNA sequence of human chromosome 17 and analysis of rearrangement in the human lineage."
    Zody M.C., Garber M., Adams D.J., Sharpe T., Harrow J., Lupski J.R., Nicholson C., Searle S.M., Wilming L., Young S.K., Abouelleil A., Allen N.R., Bi W., Bloom T., Borowsky M.L., Bugalter B.E., Butler J., Chang J.L.
    Nusbaum C.
    Nature 2006:1045-1049(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  13. "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 6."
    Mungall A.J., Palmer S.A., Sims S.K., Edwards C.A., Ashurst J.L., Wilming L., Jones M.C., Horton R., Hunt S.E., Scott C.E., Gilbert J.G.R., Clamp M.E., Bethel G., Milne S., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Andrews T.D.
    Beck S.
    Nature 2003:805-811(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  14. "The DNA sequence and biological annotation of human chromosome 1."
    Gregory S.G., Barlow K.F., McLay K.E., Kaul R., Swarbreck D., Dunham A., Scott C.E., Howe K.L., Woodfine K., Spencer C.C., Jones M.C., Gillson C., Searle S., Zhou Y., Kokocinski F., McDonald L., Evans R., Phillips K.
    Prigmore E.
    Nature 2006:315-321(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  15. "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4."
    Hillier L.W., Graves T.A., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Pepin K.H., Minx P., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L., Nash W.E., Kremitzki C., Oddy L., Du H.
    Wilson R.K.
    Nature 2005:724-731(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  16. "The DNA sequence and comparative analysis of human chromosome 5."
    Schmutz J., Martin J., Terry A., Couronne O., Grimwood J., Lowry S., Gordon L.A., Scott D., Xie G., Huang W., Hellsten U., Tran-Gyamfi M., She X., Prabhakar S., Aerts A., Altherr M., Bajorek E., Black S.
    Rubin E.M.
    Nature 2004:268-274(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  17. "The DNA sequence of human chromosome 7."
    Hillier L.W., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Graves T.A., Pepin K.H., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Maas J., Jaeger S., Walker R., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., O'Laughlin M.D., Schaller M.E., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L.
    Wilson R.K.
    Nature 2003:157-164(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  18. "The DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 13."
    Dunham A., Matthews L.H., Burton J., Ashurst J.L., Howe K.L., Ashcroft K.J., Beare D.M., Burford D.C., Hunt S.E., Griffiths-Jones S., Jones M.C., Keenan S.J., Oliver K., Scott C.E., Ainscough R., Almeida J.P., Ambrose K.D., Andrews D.T.
    Ross M.T.
    Nature 2004:522-528(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  19. "The sequence and analysis of duplication-rich human chromosome 16."
    Martin J., Han C., Gordon L.A., Terry A., Prabhakar S., She X., Xie G., Hellsten U., Chan Y.M., Altherr M., Couronne O., Aerts A., Bajorek E., Black S., Blumer H., Branscomb E., Brown N.C., Bruno W.J.
    Pennacchio L.A.
    Nature 2004:988-994(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  20. "The DNA sequence and biology of human chromosome 19."
    Grimwood J., Gordon L.A., Olsen A.S., Terry A., Schmutz J., Lamerdin J.E., Hellsten U., Goodstein D., Couronne O., Tran-Gyamfi M., Aerts A., Altherr M., Ashworth L., Bajorek E., Black S., Branscomb E., Caenepeel S., Carrano A.V.
    Lucas S.M.
    Nature 2004:529-535(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
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