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Gene counti - Download one protein sequence per gene (FASTA)
Proteome IDiUP000000722
Taxonomy498214 - Clostridium botulinum (strain Loch Maree / Type A3)
StrainLoch Maree / Type A3
Last modifiedFebruary 27, 2018
Genome assembly and annotationi GCA_000019545.1 from ENA/EMBL
Pan proteomei This proteome is part of the Clostridium botulinum (strain Hall / ATCC 3502 / NCTC 13319 / Type A) pan proteome (fasta)

Clostridium botulinum produces botulinum neurotoxin, one of deadliest toxins known. It inhibits acetylcholine release in neuromuscular junctions, causing paralysis by inhibiting muscle contraction. In most cases the affected person dies of asphyxiation or heart failure. Strains of C. botulinum are physiologically heterogeneous, and four distinct phenotypic groups (I to IV) are recognized. These four metabolically distinct groups do not, however, necessarily correlate with the serological specificities of the botulinum neurotoxin produced, which are classified into 7 serotypes, A-F. The type A toxin is used in minute doses to treat both painful muscle spasms and as a cosmetic treatment to temporarily remove frown lines between eyebrows.

C. botulinum strain Loch Maree type A3 botulinum toxin, was isolated in northwest Scotland following a botulism outbreak in 1922. It is a representative of the Group I (proteolytic) botulinum toxins producing bacteria. Group I strains produce one or two toxins of type A, B or F; strain Loch Maree produces type A3 neurotoxin. Food-borne, infant and wound botulism can all be caused by Group I strains. The toxin genes are found on a plasmid in this strain, where they are flanked by insertion sequence remnants. This is a heretofore unknown but common occurrence in C.botulinum.


Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Plasmid pCLK329


  1. "Analysis of the neurotoxin complex genes in Clostridium botulinum A1-A4 and B1 strains: BoNT/A3, /Ba4 and /B1 clusters are located within plasmids."
    Smith T.J., Hill K.K., Foley B.T., Detter J.C., Munk A.C., Bruce D.C., Doggett N.A., Smith L.A., Marks J.D., Xie G., Brettin T.S.
    PLoS ONE 2007:E1271-E1271(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
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