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Overview

StatusReference proteome
Proteinsi <p>Number of protein entries associated with this proteome: UniProtKB entries for regular proteomes or UniParc entries for redundant proteomes (<a href="/help/proteome_redundancy">more...</a>)</p> 2,324
Gene counti <p>This is the total number of unique genes found in the proteome set, algorithmically computed. For each gene, a single representative protein sequence is chosen from the proteome. Where possible, reviewed (Swiss-Prot) protein sequences are chosen as the representatives.</p> - Download one protein sequence per gene (FASTA)
Proteome IDi <p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a>. It consists of the characters ‘UP’ followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.<p><a href='/help/proteome_id' target='_top'>More...</a></p>UP000000719
Taxonomy373903 - Halothermothrix orenii (strain H 168 / OCM 544 / DSM 9562)
StrainH 168 / OCM 544 / DSM 9562
Last modifiedJuly 15, 2019
Genome assembly and annotationi <p>Identifier for the genome assembly (<a href="https://www.ensembl.org/Help/Faq?id=216">more...</a>)</p> GCA_000020485.1 from ENA/EMBL

Halothermothrix orenii (strain H 168 / OCM 544 / DSM 9562) is a Gram-negative thermohalophilic, anaerobic bacterium isolated from sediment of a Tunisian salt lake. It grows optimally at 60 degrees Celsius (maximum of 70 degrees Celsius) with 10% NaCl (NaCl growth range between 4 - 20%). H.orenii is the first Gram-negative representative of the phylum Firmicutes and the first thermohalophilic organism with a complete genome sequence. The analysis of its genome reveals a mixture of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative properties such as the presence of both a sporulating system typical of Firmicutes and a characteristic Gram-negative pathway for lipid A biosynthesis. Adaptation to high temperatures is mainly correlated to the production of more stable proteins. This can be achieved by a reduced frequency of the thermolabile amino acids histidine, glutamine and threonine and an increased number of both positively charged and negatively charged residues which suggest that ionic bonds between oppositely charged residues may help to stabilize protein structure at high temperatures. In general, two major adaptation strategies to high salinity are observed in halophilic organisms. Salt-in strategy involves a shift in amino acid composition, with an increased number of negatively charged residues located on the surface of the enzymes, coupled to the uptake of K+ and Cl2 and the extrusion of cytotoxic Na+ resulting in a cytoplasmic ion composition substantially different from the surroundings. The salt-out strategy involves the production of large amounts of specific organic osmolytes (compatible solutes) which can be accumulated to high concentrations without disturbing cellular functions. The salt-out strategy is commonly found among organisms that live in environments of moderate salinity or of high salt fluctuations. Genome tag analysis indicated that H. orenii does not contain high proportions of negatively charged acidic amino acids necessary for a salt-in survival strategy. The amino acid composition of the proteins in H.orenii resembles the profile of thermophilic organisms and is quite distinct from that of the salt-in halophilic profiles, suggesting that its proteins have been adapted to high temperatures and to a salt-out strategy. It is possible that sucrose acts as a compatible solute allowing H.orenii to maintain an osmotic balance of the cell cytoplasm with the outside environment. H. orenii is of interest because it survives hot, salty, anaerobic environments and produces thermohalophilic enzymes for biotechnology. It is also a high hydrogen producer and is used in bioremediation of hot salty oil fields. (adapted from PMID: 19145256).

Componentsi <p>Genomic components encoding the proteome</p>

Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Proteins
Chromosome2324

Publications

  1. "Genome analysis of the anaerobic thermohalophilic bacterium Halothermothrix orenii."
    Mavromatis K., Ivanova N., Anderson I., Lykidis A., Hooper S.D., Sun H., Kunin V., Lapidus A., Hugenholtz P., Patel B., Kyrpides N.C.
    PLoS ONE 2009:E4192-E4192(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
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