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Overview

Proteinsi <p>Number of protein entries associated with this proteome: UniProtKB entries for regular proteomes or UniParc entries for redundant proteomes (<a href="/help/proteome_redundancy">more...</a>)</p> 2,442
Gene counti <p>This is the total number of unique genes found in the proteome set, algorithmically computed. For each gene, a single representative protein sequence is chosen from the proteome. Where possible, reviewed (Swiss-Prot) protein sequences are chosen as the representatives.</p> - Download one protein sequence per gene (FASTA)
Proteome IDi <p>The proteome identifier (UPID) is the unique identifier assigned to the set of proteins that constitute the <a href="http://www.uniprot.org/manual/proteomes_manual">proteome</a>. It consists of the characters ‘UP’ followed by 9 digits, is stable across releases and can therefore be used to cite a UniProt proteome.<p><a href='/help/proteome_id' target='_top'>More...</a></p>UP000000240
Taxonomy272622 - Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris (strain SK11)
StrainSK11
Last modifiedJuly 25, 2019
Genome assembly and annotationi <p>Identifier for the genome assembly (<a href="https://www.ensembl.org/Help/Faq?id=216">more...</a>)</p> GCA_000014545.1 from ENA/EMBL
Pan proteomei <p>A pan proteome is the full set of proteins thought to be expressed by a group of highly related organisms (e.g. multiple strains of the same bacterial species).<p><a href='/help/pan_proteomes' target='_top'>More...</a></p> This proteome is part of the Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis (strain IL1403) (Streptococcus lactis) pan proteome (fasta)

Lactococci are mesophilic lactic acid bacteria that were first isolated from green plants. However, today they are used extensively in food fermentations. Lactococci gained notable interest because many of their functions important for successful fermentations are linked to plasmid DNA, which are commonly exchanged between strains via conjugation and with the chromosome by IS elements. Presumably, these exchanges and rearrangements mediate rapid strain adaptation and evolution but add to the instability of important metabolic functions. These bacteria are selected for use in fermentations based on their metabolic stability, their resistance to bacteriophage, and their ability to produce unique compounds often from amino acid catabolism. The study of their physiology in adverse conditions such as low pH and high NaCl indicates that they adapt to these environments quickly and change their metabolism based on carbohydrate starvation. Recent genome studies and physical maps indicate that bacterial genomes are very dynamic. These rearrangements are mediated by IS elements and result in gene duplication, translocation, inversion, deletion and horizontal transfer events. For example, an inversion encompassing approximately one-half of the chromosome of L. lactis ML3 occurred by homologous recombination between two copies of IS905. The response to these stresses, particularly to exposure to bacteriophage, highlights the plasticity of the genome. Establishing the links between environmental conditions, genome organization, and cellular physiology in lactococci will provide new and exciting information about the molecular mechanisms of these important bacteria. The importance of lactococci, specifically L. lactis subsp. cremoris, is demonstrated by its continual use in food fermentations. L. lactis subsp. cremoris strains are preferred over L. lactis subsp. lactis strains because of their superior contribution to product flavor via unique metabolic mechanisms. Of the many lactococcal strains used, L. lactis subsp. cremoris SK11 is recognized for the beneficial flavor compounds it produces (adapted from genome.jgi-psf.org/laccr/laccr.home.html).

Componentsi <p>Genomic components encoding the proteome</p>

Component nameGenome Accession(s)
Proteins
Chromosome2326
Plasmid pLACR19
Plasmid pLACR26
Plasmid pLACR361
Plasmid pLACR435
Plasmid pLACR58
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Main funding by: National Institutes of Health

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