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Encoded on

This subsection of the Names and taxonomy section indicates if the gene coding for the protein originates from the hydrogenosome, the mitochondrion, the nucleomorph, different plastids or a plasmid. The absence of this section means that the gene is located in one of the main chromosomal element(s).

Examples: Hydrogenosome, Nucleomorph

6 categories exist for plastids:

  • ‘Chloroplast’ indicates the organism is photosynthetic.
  • ‘Non-photosynthetic plastid’ is used when the organism is from a photosynthetic lineage but genetically unable to photosynthesize, as happens with some parasitic plants (Epifagus virginiana, Aneura mirabilis), a parastic “green” algae (Helicosporidium sp. subsp. Simulium jonesii) and a euglenoid (Astasia longa).
  • ‘Cyanelle’ is used for the plastid of the glaucophyte algae. It has the remnants of a cell wall between its surrounding membranes.
  • ‘Apicoplast’ is used for plastids from the non-photosynthetic Apicocomplexan parasites such as Plasmodium, Toxoplasma and Eimeria which cause malaria, toxoplasmosis and coccidian diseases respectively. Although the plastid remnant has a reduced coding capacity it is essential for cell survival, and is interesting as a drug target.
  • ‘Organellar chromatophore’ is used for the plastid of the thecate amoeba Paulinella chromatophora, which has a very large endosymbiont genome (1.0 Mb, encoding almost 900 proteins).
  • ‘Plastid’ (without any qualifier) is used for some parasitic plants (mostly from the genus Cuscuta) which may be briefly photosynthetic when very young.

Being quite small plastids are easily sequenced. A list of fully sequenced plastid genomes, of their genes and the nomenclature of known plastid-encoded proteins can be found in the document Nomenclature of plastid-encoded proteins.

If an entry reports the sequence of a protein encoded on a number of plasmids, the names of all plasmids are listed.
Example: P04958

Related documents

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