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An autosomal recessive neurodevelopmental disorder with onset at birth, characterized by severe global developmental delay, hypotonia, spastic tetraparesis, generalized dystonia and severe intellectual impairment. Brain imaging shows a unique brain malformation characterized by agenesis of putamina and globi pallidi, dysgenesis of the caudate nuclei, olfactory bulbs hypoplasia, and anomaly of the diencephalic-mesencephalic junction with abnormal corticospinal tract course.




Spastic tetraparesis, dystonia, developmental delay, and structural abnormalities of the basal ganglia


Mental retardation


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