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Identification of new human CYP2C19 alleles (CYP2C19*6 and CYP2C19*2B) in a Caucasian poor metabolizer of mephenytoin.

Ibeanu G.C., Goldstein J.A., Meyer U.A., Benhamou S., Bouchardy C., Dayer P., Ghanayem B.I., Blaisdell J.

A genetic polymorphism in the metabolism of the anticonvulsant drug S-mephenytoin has been attributed to defective CYP2C19 alleles. This genetic polymorphism displays large interracial differences with the poor metabolizer (PM) phenotype representing 2-5% of Caucasian and 13-23% of Oriental populations. In the present study, we identified two new mutations in CYP2C19 in a single Swiss Caucasian PM outlier (JOB 1) whose apparent genotype (CYP2C19*1/CYP2C19*2) did not agree with his PM phenotype. These mutations consisted of a single base pair mutation (G395A) in exon 3 resulting in an Arg132-->Gln coding change and a (G276C) mutation in exon 2 resulting in a coding change Glu92-->Asp. However, the G276C mutation and the G395A mutation resided on separate alleles. Genotyping tests of a family study of JOB1 showed that the exon 2 change occurred on the CYP2C19*2 allele, which also contained the known splice mutation in exon 5 (this variant is termed CYP2C19*2B to distinguish it from the original splice variant now termed CYP2C19*2A). The exon 3 mutation resided on a separate allele (termed CYP2C19*6). In all other respects this allele was identical to one of two wild-type alleles, CYP2C19*1B. The incidence of CYP2C19*6 in a European Caucasian population phenotyped for mephenytoin metabolism was 0/344 (99% confidence limits of 0 to 0.9%). Seven of 46 Caucasian CYP2C19*2 alleles were CYP2C19*2B(15%) and 85% were CYP2C19*2A. The Arg132Gln mutation was produced by site-directed mutatgenesis and the recombinant protein expressed in a bacterial cDNA expression system. Recombinant CYP2C19 6 had negligible catalytic activity toward S-mephenytoin compared with CYP2C19 1B, which is consistent with the conclusion that CYP2C19*6 represents a PM allele. Thus, the new CYP2C19*6 allele contributes to the PM phenotype in Caucasians.

J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 286:1490-1495(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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