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WT1 mutations in patients with Denys-Drash syndrome: a novel mutation in exon 8 and paternal allele origin.

Nordenskjold A., Friedman E., Anvret M.

Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS) is characterized by early onset nephropathy, pseudohermaphroditism in males and a high risk for developing Wilm's tumour (WT). The exact cause of DDS is unknown but germline mutations in the Wilm's tumour suppressor gene (WT1) have recently been described in the majority of DDS patients studied. These mutations occur de novo and are clustered around the zinc finger (ZF) coding exons of the WT1 gene. Analysis of exons 2-10 of the WT1 gene in constitutional DNA from five patients with DDS was carried out using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and direct DNA sequencing. In four out of the five patients, heterozygous germline mutations were found: a novel point mutation in exon 8 (ZF2) at codon 377 altering the wild-type histidine to arginine, and three previously described point mutations in exon 9 (ZF3) in the codons corresponding to amino acids 394Arg and 396Asp. In one patient, no mutations could be demonstrated. In three patients where parental DNA was available, the mutations were shown to have occurred de novo. Furthermore, since tumour DNA in two of these cases had lost the wild-type allele, polymorphic markers from the short arm of chromosome 11 were used to determine the parental origin of the mutant chromosome. In both cases, the mutant chromosome was shown to be of paternal origin. Since the majority of published WT1 mutations in DDS patients alter a RsrII restriction site in exon 9, we were able to perform PCR-based diagnosis in a female patient with early renal insufficiency and normal external genitalia.

Hum. Genet. 93:115-120(1994) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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