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Selective high-efficiency cross-linking of mammalian ribosomal proteins with cleavable thiol-directed heterobifunctional reagents: identification and binding directions of major protein complexes.

Hultin T.

Rat liver and mouse ascitic tumour ribosomal proteins are cross-linked selectively in good yield with the newly developed cleavable heterobifunctional reagents 2-(4-hydroxy-2-maleimidophenylazo)benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (reagent A) and 4-(4-hydroxy-3-maleimidophenylazo)[carboxyl-14C]benzoic acid N-hydroxysuccinimide ester (reagent B). The primary function of the reagents, an N-aroylated maleimide, binds quantitatively at low pH to accessible cysteine groups. After eliminating the free reagent, the pH is increased to make the secondary function, a juxtanuclear aroyl ester, reactive against neighboring amino groups, essentially lysine. The spacer, 4-phenylazophenol, is readily cleaved by reduction with dithionite. The ranges of cross-linking of the two reagents are approx. 8 and 12 A, respectively. Using the radiolabelled reagent B the secondarily attached protein (and its contact sequence) is made recognizable even in trace amounts. The order of binding of the interacting proteins is thereby established. The two reagents produce similar, but not identical, patterns of selective cross-linking. The following protein complexes are readily observed after conventional staining. With reagent A: S8-S11, L4-L14, L4-L18, L6-L29 and L21-L18a. With the radioactive, longer-range reagent B: L4 ----L13a, L4 ---- L18, L4 ---- L18a, L4 ---- L26, L6 ---- L29, L14 ----L13a, L21 ---- L18a and L27 ----L30 (arrows indicating the direction of binding). Ternary and quaternary complexes are also obtained, especially of the large protein L4. With both reagents a protein designated L6' is cross-linked to L23. The predominant cross-linked complexes can be obtained on a preparative scale for isolation and characterization of contact sequences by optional fragmentation and fractionation methods.

Biochim Biophys Acta 872:226-235(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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