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Integrin Binding to the Trimeric Interface of CD40L Plays a Critical Role in CD40/CD40L Signaling.

Takada Y.K., Yu J., Shimoda M., Takada Y.

CD40L plays a major role in immune response and is a major therapeutic target for inflammation. Integrin α5β1 and CD40 simultaneously bind to CD40L. It is unclear if α5β1 and CD40 work together in CD40/CD40L signaling or how α5β1 binds to CD40L. In this article, we describe that the integrin-binding site of human CD40L is predicted to be located in the trimeric interface by docking simulation. Mutations in the predicted integrin-binding site markedly reduced the binding of α5β1 to CD40L. Several CD40L mutants defective in integrin binding were defective in NF-κB activation and B cell activation and suppressed CD40L signaling induced by wild-type CD40L; however, they still bound to CD40. These findings suggest that integrin α5β1 binds to monomeric CD40L through the binding site in the trimeric interface of CD40L, and this plays a critical role in CD40/CD40L signaling. Integrin αvβ3, a widely distributed vascular integrin, bound to CD40L in a KGD-independent manner, suggesting that αvβ3 is a new CD40L receptor. Several missense mutations in CD40L that induce immunodeficiency with hyper-IgM syndrome type 1 (HIGM1) are clustered in the integrin-binding site of the trimeric interface. These HIGM1 CD40L mutants were defective in binding to α5β1 and αvβ3 (but not to CD40), suggesting that the defect in integrin binding may be a causal factor of HIGM1. These findings suggest that α5β1 and αvβ3 bind to the overlapping binding site in the trimeric interface of monomeric CD40L and generate integrin-CD40L-CD40 ternary complex. CD40L mutants defective in integrins have potential as antagonists of CD40/CD40L signaling.

J. Immunol. 203:1383-1391(2019) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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