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Ube2D3 and Ube2N are essential for RIG-I-mediated MAVS aggregation in antiviral innate immunity.

Shi Y., Yuan B., Zhu W., Zhang R., Li L., Hao X., Chen S., Hou F.

Innate immunity plays a pivotal role in virus infection. RIG-I senses viral RNA and initiates an effective innate immune response for type I interferon production. To transduce RIG-I-mediated antiviral signalling, a mitochondrial protein MAVS forms prion-like aggregates to activate downstream kinases and transcription factors. However, the activation mechanism of RIG-I is incompletely understood. Here we identify two ubiquitin enzymes Ube2D3 and Ube2N through chromatographic purification as activators for RIG-I on virus infection. We show that together with ubiquitin ligase Riplet, Ube2D3 promotes covalent conjugation of polyubiquitin chains to RIG-I, while Ube2N preferentially facilitates production of unanchored polyubiquitin chains. In the presence of these polyubiquitin chains, RIG-I induces MAVS aggregation directly on the mitochondria. Our data thus reveal two essential polyubiquitin-mediated mechanisms underlying the activation of RIG-I and MAVS for triggering innate immune signalling in response to viral infection in cells.

Nat. Commun. 8:15138-15138(2017) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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