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Kinetics of Nitrite Reduction and Peroxynitrite Formation by Ferrous Heme in Human Cystathionine beta-Synthase.

Carballal S., Cuevasanta E., Yadav P.K., Gherasim C., Ballou D.P., Alvarez B., Banerjee R.

Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the condensation of homocysteine with serine or with cysteine to form cystathionine and either water or hydrogen sulfide, respectively. Human CBS possesses a noncatalytic heme cofactor with cysteine and histidine as ligands, which in its oxidized state is relatively unreactive. Ferric CBS (Fe(III)-CBS) can be reduced by strong chemical and biochemical reductants to Fe(II)-CBS, which can bind carbon monoxide (CO) or nitric oxide (NO(•)), leading to inactive enzyme. Alternatively, Fe(II)-CBS can be reoxidized by O2to Fe(III)-CBS, forming superoxide radical anion (O2 (̇̄)). In this study, we describe the kinetics of nitrite (NO2 (-)) reduction by Fe(II)-CBS to form Fe(II)NO(•)-CBS. The second order rate constant for the reaction of Fe(II)-CBS with nitrite was obtained at low dithionite concentrations. Reoxidation of Fe(II)NO(•)-CBS by O2showed complex kinetic behavior and led to peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) formation, which was detected using the fluorescent probe, coumarin boronic acid. Thus, in addition to being a potential source of superoxide radical, CBS constitutes a previously unrecognized source of NO(•)and peroxynitrite.

J. Biol. Chem. 291:8004-8013(2016) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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