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Achatin-I, an endogenous neuroexcitatory tetrapeptide from Achatina fulica Ferussac containing a D-amino acid residue.

Kamatani Y., Minakata H., Kenny P.T.M., Iwashita T., Watanabe K., Funase K., Sun X.P., Yongsiri A., Kim K.H., Novales-Li P., Novales E.T., Kanapi C.G., Takeuchi H., Nomoto K., et al.

A tetrapeptide named achatin-I was purified from the suboesophageal and cerebral ganglia of the African giant snail Achatina fulica Férussac, and evoked a potent neuroexcitatory effect. The amino acid sequence of achatin-I is Gly-D-Phe-Ala-Asp. Achatin-I induced a voltage-dependent inward current, due to Na+, on the identifiable giant neuron, periodically oscillating neuron (PON), of the same snail. All possible isomers of achatin-I were synthesized using the solid-phase method. The sensitivity of the neuron to achatin-I and its isomers was strictly stereospecific; among the various isomers, only achatin-I showed marked effects (ED50 = 2.29 x 10(-6)M), while Gly-D-Phe-D-Ala-Asp, the synthetic D-Ala-isomer, was less than 10(-3) active.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 160:1015-1020(1989) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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