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Association of a Novel ACTA1 Mutation With a Dominant Progressive Scapuloperoneal Myopathy in an Extended Family.

Zukosky K., Meilleur K., Traynor B.J., Dastgir J., Medne L., Devoto M., Collins J., Rooney J., Zou Y., Yang M.L., Gibbs J.R., Meier M., Stetefeld J., Finkel R.S., Schessl J., Elman L., Felice K., Ferguson T.A., Ceyhan-Birsoy O., Beggs A.H., Tennekoon G., Johnson J.O., Boennemann C.G.

New genomic strategies can now be applied to identify a diagnosis in patients and families with previously undiagnosed rare genetic conditions. The large family evaluated in the present study was described in 1966 and now expands the phenotype of a known neuromuscular gene.To determine the genetic cause of a slowly progressive, autosomal dominant, scapuloperoneal neuromuscular disorder by using linkage and exome sequencing.Fourteen affected individuals in a 6-generation family with a progressive scapuloperoneal disorder were evaluated. Participants were examined at pediatric, neuromuscular, and research clinics from March 1, 2005, to May 31, 2014. Exome and linkage were performed in genetics laboratories of research institutions.Examination and evaluation by magnetic resonance imaging, ultrasonography, electrodiagnostic studies, and muscle biopsies (n = 3). Genetic analysis included linkage analysis (n = 17) with exome sequencing (n = 7).Clinical findings included progressive muscle weakness in an initially scapuloperoneal and distal distribution, including wrist extensor weakness, finger and foot drop, scapular winging, mild facial weakness, Achilles tendon contractures, and diminished or absent deep tendon reflexes. Both age at onset and progression of the disease showed clinical variability within the family. Muscle biopsy specimens demonstrated type I fiber atrophy and trabeculated fibers without nemaline rods. Analysis of exome sequences within the linkage region (4.8 megabases) revealed missense mutation c.591C>A p.Glu197Asp in a highly conserved residue in exon 4 of ACTA1. The mutation cosegregated with disease in all tested individuals and was not present in unaffected individuals.This family defines a new scapuloperoneal phenotype associated with an ACTA1 mutation. A highly conserved protein, ACTA1 is implicated in multiple muscle diseases, including nemaline myopathy, actin aggregate myopathy, fiber-type disproportion, and rod-core myopathy. To our knowledge, mutations in Glu197 have not been reported previously. This residue is highly conserved and located in an exposed position in the protein; the mutation affects the intermolecular and intramolecular electrostatic interactions as shown by structural modeling. The mutation in this residue does not appear to lead to rod formation or actin accumulation in vitro or in vivo, suggesting a different molecular mechanism from that of other ACTA1 diseases.

JAMA Neurol. 72:689-698(2015) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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