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Five Layers of Receptor Signaling in gammadelta T-Cell Differentiation and Activation.

Ribeiro S.T., Ribot J.C., Silva-Santos B.

The contributions of γδ T-cells to immunity to infection or tumors critically depend on their activation and differentiation into effectors capable of secreting cytokines and killing infected or transformed cells. These processes are molecularly controlled by surface receptors that capture key extracellular cues and convey downstream intracellular signals that regulate γδ T-cell physiology. The understanding of how environmental signals are integrated by γδ T-cells is critical for their manipulation in clinical settings. Here, we discuss how different classes of surface receptors impact on human and murine γδ T-cell differentiation, activation, and expansion. In particular, we review the role of five receptor types: the T-cell receptor (TCR), costimulatory receptors, cytokine receptors, NK receptors, and inhibitory receptors. Some of the key players are the costimulatory receptors CD27 and CD28, which differentially impact on pro-inflammatory subsets of γδ T-cells; the cytokine receptors IL-2R, IL-7R, and IL-15R, which drive functional differentiation and expansion of γδ T-cells; the NK receptor NKG2D and its contribution to γδ T-cell cytotoxicity; and the inhibitory receptors PD-1 and BTLA that control γδ T-cell homeostasis. We discuss these and other receptors in the context of a five-step model of receptor signaling in γδ T-cell differentiation and activation, and discuss its implications for the manipulation of γδ T-cells in immunotherapy.

Front. Immunol. 6:15-15(2015) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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