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The role of high mobility group box 1 in innate immunity.

Lee S.A., Kwak M.S., Kim S., Shin J.S.

With growing accounts of inflammatory diseases such as sepsis, greater understanding the immune system and the mechanisms of cellular immunity have become primary objectives in immunology studies. High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a ubiquitous nuclear protein that is implicated in various aspects of the innate immune system as a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule and a late mediator of inflammation, as well as in principal cellular processes, such as autophagy and apoptosis. HMGB1 functions in the nucleus as a DNA chaperone; however, it exhibits cytokine-like activity when secreted by injurious or infectious stimuli. Extracellular HMGB1 acts through specific receptors to promote activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, leading to production of cytokines and chemokines. These findings further implicate HMGB1 in lethal inflammatory diseases as a crucial regulator of inflammatory, injurious, and infectious responses. In this paper, we summarize the role of HMGB1 in inflammatory and non-inflammatory states and assess potential therapeutic approaches targeting HMGB1 in inflammatory diseases.

Yonsei Med. J. 55:1165-1176(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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