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FOUR LIPS and MYB88 conditionally restrict the G1/S transition during stomatal formation.

Lee E., Liu X., Eglit Y., Sack F.

Consistent with their valve-like function in shoot-atmosphere gas exchange, guard cells are smaller than other epidermal cells and usually harbour 2C DNA levels in diploid plants. The paralogous Arabidopsis R2R3 MYB transcription factors, FOUR LIPS and MYB88, ensure that stomata contain just two guard cells by restricting mitosis. The loss of both FLP and MYB88 function in flp myb88 double mutants induces repeated mitotic divisions that lead to the formation of clusters of stomata in direct contact. By contrast, CYCLIN DEPENDENT KINASE B1 function is required for the symmetric division that precedes stomatal maturation. It was found that blocking mitosis by chemically disrupting microtubules or by the combined loss of FLP/MYB88 and CDKB1 function, causes single (undivided) guard cells (sGCs) to enlarge and attain mean DNA levels of up to 10C. The loss of both FLP and CDKB1 function also dramatically increased plastid number, led to the formation of multiple nuclei in GCs, altered GC and stomatal shape, and disrupted the fate of lineage-specific stem cells. Thus, in addition to respectively restricting and promoting symmetric divisions, FLP and CDKB1 together also conditionally restrict the G1/S transition and chloroplast and nuclear number, and normally maintain fate and developmental progression throughout the stomatal cell lineage.

J. Exp. Bot. 64:5207-5219(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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