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Mutual regulation between SIAH2 and DYRK2 controls hypoxic and genotoxic signaling pathways.

Perez M., Garcia-Limones C., Zapico I., Marina A., Schmitz M.L., Munoz E., Calzado M.A.

The ubiquitin E3 ligase SIAH2 is an important regulator of the hypoxic response as it leads to the ubiquitin/proteasomal degradation of prolyl hydroxylases such as PHD3, which in turn increases the stability of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α. In the present study, we identify the serine/threonine kinase DYRK2 as SIAH2 interaction partner that phosphorylates SIAH2 at five residues (Ser16, Thr26, Ser28, Ser68, and Thr119). Phosphomimetic and phospho-mutant forms of SIAH2 exhibit different subcellular localizations and consequently change in PHD3 degrading activity. Accordingly, phosphorylated SIAH2 is more active than the wild-type E3 ligase and shows an increased ability to trigger the HIF-1α-mediated transcriptional response and angiogenesis. We also found that SIAH2 knockdown increases DYRK2 stability, whereas SIAH2 expression facilitates DYRK2 polyubiquitination and degradation. Hypoxic conditions cause a SIAH2-dependent DYRK2 polyubiquitination and degradation which ultimately also results in an impaired SIAH2 phosphorylation. Similarly, DYRK2-mediated phosphorylation of p53 at Ser46 is impaired under hypoxic conditions, suggesting a molecular mechanism underlying chemotherapy resistance in solid tumors.

J. Mol. Cell Biol. 4:316-330(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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