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A shared interface mediates paramyxovirus interference with antiviral RNA helicases MDA5 and LGP2.

Parisien J.P., Bamming D., Komuro A., Ramachandran A., Rodriguez J.J., Barber G., Wojahn R.D., Horvath C.M.

Diverse members of the Paramyxovirus family of negative-strand RNA viruses effectively suppress host innate immune responses through the actions of their V proteins. The V protein mediates interference with the interferon regulatory RNA helicase MDA5 to avoid cellular antiviral responses. Analysis of the interaction interface revealed the MDA5 helicase C domain as necessary and sufficient for association with V proteins from human parainfluenza virus type 2, parainfluenza virus type 5, measles virus, mumps virus, Hendra virus, and Nipah virus. The identified approximately 130-residue region is highly homologous between MDA5 and the related antiviral helicase LGP2, but not RIG-I. Results indicate that the paramyxovirus V proteins can also associate with LGP2. The V protein interaction was found to disrupt ATP hydrolysis mediated by both MDA5 and LGP2. These findings provide a potential mechanistic basis for V protein-mediated helicase interference and identify LGP2 as a second cellular RNA helicase targeted by paramyxovirus V proteins.

J. Virol. 83:7252-7260(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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