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Peptide pal9a from the venom of the turrid snail Polystira albida from the Gulf of Mexico: purification, characterization, and comparison with P-conotoxin-like (framework IX) conoidean peptides.

Aguilar M.B., de la Rosa R.A., Falcon A., Olivera B.M., Heimer de la Cotera E.P.

A novel peptide, pal9a, was purified from the venom duct extract of the turrid snail, Polystira albida (superfamily Conoidea, family Turridae), collected in the Gulf of Mexico. Its primary structure was determined by automated Edman degradation and confirmed by mass spectrometry. Turritoxin pal9a contains 34 amino acid residues, including 6 Cys residues arranged in the pattern C-C-C-C-C-C (framework IX, where "-" represents one or more non-Cys amino acids), which characterizes the P-conotoxins. Peptide pal9a is the first P-conotoxin-like turritoxin characterized from a member of family Turridae of the Western Atlantic. The primary structure of turritoxin pal9a, NVCDGDACPDGVCRSGCTCDFNVAQRKDTCFYPQ-nh(2) (-nh(2), amidated C-terminus; calculated monoisotopic mass, 3679.48Da; experimental monoisotopic mass, 3678.84Da), shows variable degrees of low sequence similarity with framework IX-toxins from turrid (three species of Lophiotoma, and four species of Gemmula), terebrid (Hastula hectica), and Conus species of the Indo-Pacific (C. textile, C. gloriamaris, C. amadis, and C. litteratus) and of the Western Atlantic (C. regius). During the comparison of peptide pal9a with the other framework IX-toxins known to date, we realized that, in general, these peptides are hydrophilic, acidic compounds that have not been found in the fish-hunting Conus species studied thus far; we also found support for the notion that they may belong to several distinct gene superfamilies, even those from the same species. Given the broad distribution of framework IX-toxins within superfamily Conoidea, it will be interesting to identify the still-unknown molecular targets of P-conotoxins, P-conotoxin-like turritoxins, and P-conotoxin-like augertoxins.

Peptides 30:467-476(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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