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Smad6 negatively regulates interleukin 1-receptor-Toll-like receptor signaling through direct interaction with the adaptor Pellino-1.

Choi K.C., Lee Y.S., Lim S., Choi H.K., Lee C.H., Lee E.K., Hong S., Kim I.H., Kim S.J., Park S.H.

Transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-beta1) is a potent cytokine with pleiotropic effects, including anti-inflammatory activity. Here we show that the signaling protein Smad6 bound to Pellino-1, an adaptor protein of mammalian interleukin 1 receptor (IL-1R)-associated kinase 1 (IRAK1), and thereby promoted TGF-beta-mediated anti-inflammatory effects. Smad6-Pellino-1 interaction abrogated signaling mediated by a complex of IRAK1, Pellino-1 and adaptor protein TRAF6 that formed after stimulation by IL-1beta treatment. Blockade of IRAK1-Pellino-1-TRAF6 signaling prevented degradation of the inhibitor IkappaBalpha and subsequent nuclear translocation of transcription factor NF-kappaB and thus expression of proinflammatory genes. 'Knockdown' of endogenous Smad6 expression by RNA interference reduced anti-inflammatory activity mediated by TGF-beta1 or the TGF-beta family member BMP-4. Thus Smad6 is a critical mediator of the TGF-beta-BMP pathway that mediates anti-inflammatory activity and negatively regulates IL-1R-Toll-like receptor signals.

Nat. Immunol. 7:1057-1065(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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