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IL-33, an interleukin-1-like cytokine that signals via the IL-1 receptor-related protein ST 2 and induces T helper type 2-associated cytokines.

Schmitz J., Owyang A., Oldham E., Song Y., Murphy E., McClanahan T.K., Zurawski G., Moshrefi M., Qin J., Li X., Gorman D.M., Bazan J.F., Kastelein R.A.

Cytokines of the interleukin-1 (IL-1) family, such as IL-1 alpha/beta and IL-18, have important functions in host defense, immune regulation, and inflammation. Insight into their biological functions has led to novel therapeutic approaches to treat human inflammatory diseases. Within the IL-1 family, IL-1 alpha/beta, IL-1Ra, and IL-18 have been matched to their respective receptor complexes and have been shown to have distinct biological functions. The most prominent orphan IL-1 receptor is ST 2. This receptor has been described as a negative regulator of Toll-like receptor-IL-1 receptor signaling, but it also functions as an important effector molecule of T helper type 2 responses. We report a member of the IL-1 family, IL-33, which mediates its biological effects via IL-1 receptor ST 2, activates NF-kappaB and MAP kinases, and drives production of T(H)2-associated cytokines from in vitro polarized T(H)2 cells. In vivo, IL-33 induces the expression of IL-4, IL-5, and IL-13 and leads to severe pathological changes in mucosal organs.

Immunity 23:479-490(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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