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Comparison of the partial proteomes of the venoms of Brazilian spiders of the genus Phoneutria.

Richardson M., Pimenta A.M., Bemquerer M.P., Santoro M.M., Beirao P.S., Lima M.E., Figueiredo S.G., Bloch C. Jr., Vasconcelos E.A., Campos F.A., Gomes P.C., Cordeiro M.N.

The proteomes of the venoms of the Brazilian wandering "armed" spiders Phoneutria nigriventer, Phoneutria reidyi, and Phoneutria keyserlingi, were compared using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. The venom components were also fractionated using a combination of preparative reverse phase HPLC on Vydac C4, analytical RP-HPLC on Vydac C8 and C18 and cation exchange FPLC on Resource S at pH 6.1 and 4.7, or anion exchange HPLC on Synchropak AX-300 at pH 8.6. The amino acid sequences of the native and S-pyridyl-ethylated proteins and peptides derived from them by enzymatic digestion and chemical cleavages were determined using a Shimadzu PPSQ-21(A) automated protein sequencer, and by MS/MS collision induced dissociations. To date nearly 400 peptides and proteins (1.2-27 kDa) have been isolated in a pure state and, of these, more than 100 have had their complete or partial amino acid sequences determined. These sequences demonstrate, as might be expected, that the venoms of P. reidyi and P. keyserlingi (Family: Ctenidae) both contain a similar range of isoforms of the neurotoxins as those previously isolated from P. nigriventer which are active on neuronal ion (Ca(2+), Na(+) and K(+)) channels and NMDA-type glutamate receptors. In addition two new families of small (3-4 kDa) toxins, some larger protein (>10 kDa) components, and two serine proteinases of the venom of P. nigriventer are described. These enzymes may be responsible for some of the post-translational modification observed in some of the venom components.

Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 142:173-187(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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