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Differential cooperation between dHAND and three different E-proteins.

Murakami M., Kataoka K., Tominaga J., Nakagawa O., Kurihara H.

dHAND is a transcription factor belonging to the class B basic helix-loop-helix protein family and is expressed during embryogenesis in the heart, branchial arches, limb buds, and neural crest derivatives. Despite much study, the molecular mechanisms involved in the regulation of dHAND activity are not well understood. We therefore carried out yeast two-hybrid screening using full-length dHAND as bait, which led to identification of several dHAND-binding proteins, including three E-proteins: E2A, ME2, and ALF1. Subsequent analysis revealed that although their heterodimerization and transcriptional activities were similar, dHAND/E-protein heterodimers bind to an E-box element with differing affinities, suggesting they have distinct DNA binding specificities. Moreover, in situ hybridization showed that E-protein genes are expressed fairly ubiquitously among embryonic tissues, including the branchial arches and limb buds. By contrast, little signal was detected in the heart, suggesting that dHAND complexes with partners other than E-proteins in cardiac tissue.

Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 323:168-174(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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