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Intermolecular interactions in the AhpC/AhpD antioxidant defense system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

Koshkin A., Knudsen G.M., Ortiz De Montellano P.R.

The AhpC/AhpD system of Mycobacterium tuberculosis provides important antioxidant protection, particularly when the KatG catalase-peroxidase activity is depressed, as it is in many isoniazid resistant strains. In the absence of lipoamide or bovine dihydrolipoamide dehydrogenase (DHLDH), components of the normal catalytic system, covalent dimers, tetramers, and hexamers are formed when a mixture of AhpC and AhpD is exposed to peroxide. Each of the oligomers contains equimolar amounts of AhpC and AhpD. This oligomerization is reversible because the oligomers can be fully reduced to the monomeric species by dithiothreitol. Using mutagenesis, we confirm here that Cys61 and Cys174 of AhpC as well as Cys133 and Cys130 of AhpD are critical for activity in the fully reconstituted system consisting of AhpC, AhpD, lipoamide, DHLDH, and NADH. A key step in the reduction of oxidized AhpC by reduced AhpD is formation of a disulfide cross-link between Cys61 of AhpC and Cys133 of AhpD. This cross-link can be reduced by intramolecular reaction with either Cys174 of AhpC or Cys130 of AhpD. Cys176 can also, to some extent, substitute for Cys174, providing a measure of redundancy that helps to maintain the efficiency of this antioxidant protective system.

Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 427:41-47(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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