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Identification of a new glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase isoenzyme, mtGPAT2, in mitochondria.

Lewin T.M., Schwerbrock N.M., Lee D.P., Coleman R.A.

Glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase (GPAT) catalyzes the initial and rate-limiting step of glycerolipid synthesis. Two distinct GPAT isoenzymes had been identified in mammalian tissues, an N-ethylmaleimide (NEM)-sensitive isoform in the endoplasmic reticulum membrane (microsomal GPAT) and an NEM-resistant form in the outer mitochondrial membrane (mtGPAT). Although only mtGPAT has been cloned, the microsomal and mitochondrial GPAT isoforms can be distinguished, because they differ in acyl-CoA substrate preference, sensitivity to inhibition by dihydroxyacetone phosphate and polymixin B, temperature sensitivity, and ability to be activated by acetone. The preponderance of evidence supports a role for mtGPAT in synthesizing the precursors for triacylglycerol synthesis. In mtGPAT(-/-) mice, PCR genotyping and Northern analysis showed successful knockout of mtGPAT; however, we detected a novel NEM-sensitive GPAT activity in mitochondrial fractions and an anti-mtGPAT immunoreactive protein in liver mitochondria, but not in microsomes. Rigorous analysis using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed that the anti-mtGPAT immunoreactive proteins in wild type and mtGPAT(-/-) liver mitochondria have different isoelectric points. These results suggested the presence of a second GPAT in liver mitochondria from mtGPAT(-/-) mice. Characterization of this GPAT activity in liver from mtGPAT null mice showed that, unlike the mtGPAT activity in wild type samples, activity in mtGPAT knockout mitochondria did not prefer palmitoyl-CoA, was sensitive to inactivation by NEM, was inhibited by dihydroxyacetone phosphate and polymixin B, was temperature-sensitive, and was not activated by acetone. We conclude that a novel GPAT (mtGPAT2) with antigenic epitopes similar to those of mtGPAT is detectable in mitochondria from the livers of mtGPAT(-/-) mice.

J. Biol. Chem. 279:13488-13495(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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