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Mutation analysis in patients with congenital adrenal hyperplasia in the Spanish population: identification of putative novel steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency alleles associated with the classic form of the disease.

Lobato M.N., Ordonez-Sanchez M.L., Tusie-Luna M.T., Meseguer A.

Steroid 21-hydroxylase deficiency, due to the genetic impairment of the CYP21 gene, is a major cause of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). In about 80% of the cases, the defect is related with the transfer of deleterious point mutations from the CYP21P pseudogene to the active CYP21 gene. Sixteen different point mutations have been searched for in 60 Spanish patients with the classic form of CAH and 171 unaffected family members, using selective amplification of the CYP21 gene followed by allele-specific oligonucleotide hybridization (PCR-ASOH) and sequencing analysis. While 31.9% of the disease alleles carry CYP21 deletions or large gene conversions, around 58% of the alleles carry single point mutations. Corresponding segregation of mutations was found in every case indicating that none of them has apparently appeared de novo. The most frequent mutations found in our sample are i2G, V281L, R356W, Q318X, P453S and F306+t, with rates of 30, 14.2, 10, 9.2, 9.2 and 7. 5%, respectively. We found similar frequencies for the A and C polymorphism at position 656 (40 and 31.5%, respectively) in wild-type alleles for the i2G mutation. Around 10% of the alleles, for which no mutations were identified by searching for the sixteen previously known mutations, are currently being sequenced and new possible mutations and polymorphisms have been identified.

Hum. Hered. 49:169-175(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC]

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