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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2019_02 of Feb-13, 2019 contains 559,228 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 5,994 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,436 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,948 2,299 184 188
Spiders Araneae 1,419 1,492 114 115
Snails Gastropoda 1,265 1,279 110 108
Scorpions Scorpiones 790 975 73 78
Sea anemones Actiniaria 248 0 46 0
Insects Hexapoda 78 269 36 78
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 6 6
Fishes Teleostei 29 15 10 5
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 52 54 2 3
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 3 16 2
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 29 4 14 2
All animals Metazoa 5,994 6,436 624 587

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 2 363 185 96 3 91 746
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 52 299 111 42 6 73 613
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 46 199 98 25 0 69 453
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 47 7 1 3 0 69
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 1 0 0 1 0 2
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 277 0 0 165 0 0 442
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 29 133 76 7 0 317
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 124 71 6 0 219
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 18 0 0 0 0 27
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 11 19 0 0 30
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 5 5 0 0 4 26
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
5-HT receptor sigma 0 1 0 1 0 0 2
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 3
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,299 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 68.3%
at transcript level 24%
inferred from homology 7.7%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,299 1,895 unique 100%
General annotation 2,299 11,211 100%
Function 2,208 2,353 96%
Catalytic activity 521 525 22.7%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 2,294 25,548 99.8%
Amino acid modifications 2,088 11,668 90.8%
Cross-references 2,298 0 100%
EMBL 1,368 0 59.5%
InterPro 2,002 0 87.1%
PDB 250 0 10.9%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,279 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 42%
at transcript level 40.8%
inferred from homology 17%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,279 514 unique 100%
General annotation 1,279 5,670 100%
Function 629 643 49.2%
Catalytic activity 4 4 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,264 8,489 98.8%
Amino acid modifications 1,161 4,289 90.8%
Cross-references 1,276 0 100%
EMBL 786 0 61.5%
InterPro 809 0 63.3%
PDB 86 0 6.7%
Conoserver 867 0 67.8%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.6% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 975 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 60.6%
at transcript level 25.1%
inferred from homology 14.3%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 975 694 unique 100%
General annotation 975 3,923 100%
Function 864 899 88.6%
Catalytic activity 16 16 1.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 970 6,030 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 801 2,889 82.2%
Cross-references 974 0 100%
EMBL 524 0 53.7%
InterPro 714 0 73.2%
PDB 103 0 10.6%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.6% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,492 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 45.2%
at transcript level 48.5%
inferred from homology 6.3%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,492 449 unique 100%
General annotation 1,492 6,749 100%
Function 1,195 1,201 80.1%
Catalytic activity 217 217 14.5%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,479 9,963 99.1%
Amino acid modifications 1,285 4,228 86.1%
Cross-references 1,492 0 100%
EMBL 1,046 0 70.1%
InterPro 1,170 0 78.4%
PDB 79 0 5.3%
ArachnoServer 1,136 0 76.1%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

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