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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2021_02 of Oct-07, 2020 contains 564,638 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 6,403 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,860 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,987 2,333 186 190
Spiders Araneae 1,449 1,524 128 130
Snails Gastropoda 1,369 1,377 117 114
Scorpions Scorpiones 834 1,020 79 84
Sea anemones Actiniaria 254 0 47 0
Insects Hexapoda 117 336 50 89
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 6 6
Fishes Teleostei 32 18 11 6
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 184 194 7 8
Mammals Mammalia 8 6 3 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 78 0 17 0
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 38 12 16 3
All animals Metazoa 6,403 6,860 678 632

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 2 397 201 97 3 91 800
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 54 303 118 45 6 82 646
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 48 203 102 25 0 78 480
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 47 10 1 3 0 72
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 1 0 0 1 0 2
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 289 1 0 174 0 0 464
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 30 140 77 10 0 333
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 130 72 6 0 227
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 18 0 0 0 0 27
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 11 20 0 0 31
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 5 5 0 0 4 26
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
5-HT receptor sigma 0 1 0 1 0 0 2
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 11 0 95
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
endothelin receptor xi 7 0 0 0 0 0 7
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,333 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 68.7%
at transcript level 23.5%
inferred from homology 7.8%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,333 2,004 unique 100%
General annotation 2,333 11,790 100%
Function 2,250 2,401 96.4%
Catalytic activity 527 720 22.6%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 2,333 26,672 100%
Amino acid modifications 2,131 11,907 91.3%
Cross-references 2,333 0 90.7%
EMBL 1,380 0 59.2%
InterPro 1,997 0 85.6%
PDB 266 0 11.4%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,377 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 42.6%
at transcript level 36.2%
inferred from homology 21.1%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.1%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,377 556 unique 100%
General annotation 1,377 6,194 100%
Function 723 739 52.5%
Catalytic activity 7 7 0.5%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,362 9,000 98.9%
Amino acid modifications 1,236 4,532 89.8%
Cross-references 1,377 0 87.7%
EMBL 844 0 61.3%
InterPro 833 0 60.5%
PDB 93 0 6.8%
Conoserver 878 0 63.8%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 1,020 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 61.3%
at transcript level 23.4%
inferred from homology 15.3%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,020 754 unique 100%
General annotation 1,020 4,545 100%
Function 908 943 89%
Catalytic activity 18 21 1.8%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,016 6,381 99.6%
Amino acid modifications 849 3,087 83.2%
Cross-references 1,020 0 91.2%
EMBL 548 0 53.7%
InterPro 758 0 74.3%
PDB 110 0 10.8%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.2% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,524 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 46.9%
at transcript level 45.7%
inferred from homology 7.4%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,524 498 unique 100%
General annotation 1,524 7,628 100%
Function 1,229 1,238 80.6%
Catalytic activity 221 890 14.5%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,515 9,784 99.4%
Amino acid modifications 1,330 4,397 87.3%
Cross-references 1,524 0 97.8%
EMBL 1,059 0 69.5%
InterPro 1,197 0 78.5%
PDB 90 0 5.9%
ArachnoServer 1,154 0 75.7%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

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