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Animal toxin annotation project

Statistics

UniProt release 2019_10 of Nov-13, 2019 contains 561,356 reviewed entries.

Total number of reviewed animal toxin entries: 6,207 .

Total number of reviewed venom protein entries: 6,700 .

Common name Scientific name Toxins Proteins
found in
venom
Species
producing
toxins
Species
secreting
venom
Snakes Serpentes 1,965 2,317 184 188
Spiders Araneae 1,424 1,499 115 117
Snails Gastropoda 1,276 1,290 110 108
Scorpions Scorpiones 810 997 75 80
Sea anemones Actiniaria 252 0 48 0
Insects Hexapoda 93 330 42 87
Lizards Anguimorpha 34 37 6 6
Fishes Teleostei 29 15 10 5
Scolopendra Scolopendridae 184 194 7 8
Mammals Mammalia 7 6 2 1
Hydra Hydroida 4 0 2 0
Toad Amphibia 76 0 16 0
Mites Acari 3 0 2 0
Starfishes Asteroidea 3 3 1 1
Worms Cerebratulus 3 0 1 0
Medusae Rhopilema 1 0 1 0
Jellyfishes Cubozoa 5 0 4 0
other metazoans - 38 12 16 3
All animals Metazoa 6,207 6,700 642 604

Venom protein targets in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot distributed by taxonomical group. The idea for the table originates from the nomenclature proposition made by King et al. 2008 (PMID:18619481). The table proposed in this paper has been completed and links between venom proteins and targets have been added. Since this table may also help in nomenclature discussions, the descriptors (Greek letter that specifies the biological function) proposed by these authors are also indicated (see 2nd column). Note that multiple descriptors used for sodium channels are due to different modes of action on this channel. The targets are firstly ordered by types: ion channels, receptors (7TM and 1TM) and transporters, and secondly by abundance.

target: ion channel (voltage-gated and transmitter-gated) descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channel beta, delta, iota, mu 2 381 186 96 3 92 767
potassium channel inhibitor (Includes the following 4 channels: KIR, K2P, Kv and KCa as targets) - 53 299 112 45 6 81 633
- voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel kappa 47 199 99 25 0 77 470
- calcium-activated potassium (KCa) channel lambda 11 47 7 1 3 0 69
- inward-rectifier potassium (KIR) channel eta 0 1 0 0 1 0 2
- two-pore domain potassium (K2P) channel theta 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
nicotinic acetylcholine receptor alpha, psi 279 0 0 170 0 0 449
calcium channel inhibitor (Includes CaV and Ryr) - 55 29 133 76 10 0 324
- voltage-gated calcium (Cav) channel omega 11 3 124 71 6 0 220
- ryanodine receptor (RyR) phi 8 18 0 0 0 0 27
- P2RX receptor omicron 0 0 2 0 0 0 2
chloride channel inhibitor (Includes CLCN, CFTR and GABA(A) as targets) - 2 18 0 0 0 0 20
- voltage-gated chloride channels (CLCN) epsilon 0 18 0 0 0 0 18
- CFTR channel LAMBDA - in upper case 0 1 0 0 0 0 1
- GABA(A) receptor SIGMA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
glutamate receptor GAMMA - in upper case 0 0 11 19 0 0 30
HCNa nonspecific cation channel gamma 0 0 0 7 0 0 7
cyclic nucleotide-gated channel zeta 10 0 0 0 0 0 10
transient receptor potential (TRP) channel tau 0 5 5 0 0 4 26
acid-sensing ion (ASICs) channel pi 0 0 0 0 0 1 1
5-HT receptor sigma 0 1 0 1 0 0 2
target: receptor 7TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
muscarinic acetylcholine receptor - 27 0 0 0 0 0 27
adrenoceptor rho 13 12 0 1 0 0 27
bradykinin receptor - 6 2 5 0 10 0 92
dopamine receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 1
vasopressin/oxytocin receptor upsilon 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
endothelin receptor xi 6 0 0 0 0 0 6
vasoactive intestinal polypeptide receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 4
glucagon-like peptide receptor - 1 0 0 0 0 0 4
somatostatin receptor - 0 0 0 2 0 0 2
cholecystokinin receptor - 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
neurotensin receptor nu 0 0 0 3 0 0 3
target: receptor 1TM descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
vascular endothelial growth factor receptor - 16 0 0 0 0 0 16
epidermal growth factor receptor OMEGA - in upper case 0 0 0 0 0 4 4
target: transporter descriptor snake scorpion spider cone snail insect sea anemone all
noradrenaline transporter chi 0 0 0 9 0 0 9
glutamate transporter - 0 0 1 0 0 0 1

Snake venom proteins - 2,317 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 68.7%
at transcript level 23.5%
inferred from homology 7.8%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 2,317 1,939 unique 100%
General annotation 2,317 11,648 100%
Function 2,229 2,380 96.2%
Catalytic activity 527 720 22.7%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 2,317 25,986 100%
Amino acid modifications 2,116 11,828 91.3%
Cross-references 2,316 0 100%
EMBL 1,372 0 59.2%
InterPro 2,032 0 87.7%
PDB 259 0 11.2%

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

100% of reviewed snake venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Snail venom proteins - 1,290 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 42.2%
at transcript level 39.7%
inferred from homology 18%
predicted N/A
uncertain 0.2%

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,290 519 unique 100%
General annotation 1,290 5,718 100%
Function 633 649 49.1%
Catalytic activity 4 4 0.3%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,275 8,557 98.8%
Amino acid modifications 1,172 4,315 90.9%
Cross-references 1,289 0 100%
EMBL 795 0 61.6%
InterPro 814 0 63.1%
PDB 92 0 7.1%
Conoserver 867 0 67.2%

100% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.9% of reviewed snail venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Scorpion venom proteins - 997 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 60.6%
at transcript level 24.2%
inferred from homology 15.2%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 997 719 unique 100%
General annotation 997 4,069 100%
Function 886 921 88.9%
Catalytic activity 18 21 1.8%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 992 6,229 99.5%
Amino acid modifications 823 2,984 82.5%
Cross-references 997 0 100%
EMBL 540 0 54.2%
InterPro 736 0 73.8%
PDB 105 0 10.5%

100% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.6% of reviewed scorpion venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

Spider venom proteins - 1,499 reviewed entries.

Evidence for the existence of protein Percentage of entries
at protein level 46%
at transcript level 47.7%
inferred from homology 6.3%
predicted N/A
uncertain N/A

Annotation categories Entries with Number of annotations Coverage
PubMed citations 1,499 463 unique 100%
General annotation 1,499 7,455 100%
Function 1,200 1,208 80.1%
Catalytic activity 221 890 14.7%
Subcellular location 0 0 N/A
Toxic dose 0 0 N/A
Sequence annotation 1,486 9,500 99.1%
Amino acid modifications 1,291 4,250 86.1%
Cross-references 1,497 0 100%
EMBL 1,048 0 69.9%
InterPro 1,172 0 78.2%
PDB 82 0 5.5%
ArachnoServer 1,154 0 77%

100% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one keyword .

99.8% of reviewed spider venom proteins entries are annotated with at least one GO (Gene Ontology ) term.

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