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If a protein meets these conditions... i

Common conditions

Special conditions

    • scientific organism = Human immunodeficiency virus type 1
    • scientific organism = Human immunodeficiency virus 1
    • scientific organism = Human immunodeficiency virus type 2
    • scientific organism = simian immunodeficiency virus
    • scientific organism = Human immunodeficiency virus 2

... then these annotations are applied i

Protein namei

  • Recommended name:
    Protein Vpr
    Alternative name(s):
    Viral protein R

Gene namei

  • Name:vpr

Subcellular locationi


  • During virus entry, plays a role in the transport of the viral pre-integration (PIC) complex to the host nucleus. This function is crucial for viral infection of non-dividing macrophages. May act directly at the nuclear pore complex, by binding nucleoporins phenylalanine-glycine (FG)-repeat regions.
  • During virus replication, may deplete host UNG protein, and incude G2-M cell cycle arrest. Acts by targeting specific host proteins for degradation by the 26S proteasome, through association with the cellular CUL4A-DDB1 E3 ligase complex by direct interaction with host VPRPB/DCAF-1. Cell cycle arrest reportedly occurs within hours of infection and is not blocked by antiviral agents, suggesting that it is initiated by the VPR carried into the virion. Additionally, VPR induces apoptosis in a cell cycle dependent manner suggesting that these two effects are mechanistically linked. Detected in the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of AIDS patient, VPR may also induce cell death to bystander cells.
  • Stimulates gene expression driven by the HIV-2 LTR. Prevents infected cells from undergoing mitosis and proliferating, by inducing arrest or delay in the G2 phase of the cell cycle. Cell cycle arrest creates a favorable environment for maximizing viral expression and production.