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Q9Z301

- PER2_RAT

UniProt

Q9Z301 - PER2_RAT

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Protein

Period circadian protein homolog 2

Gene
Per2
Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5 - Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Transcriptional repressor which forms a core component of the circadian clock. The circadian clock, an internal time-keeping system, regulates various physiological processes through the generation of approximately 24 hour circadian rhythms in gene expression, which are translated into rhythms in metabolism and behavior. It is derived from the Latin roots 'circa' (about) and 'diem' (day) and acts as an important regulator of a wide array of physiological functions including metabolism, sleep, body temperature, blood pressure, endocrine, immune, cardiovascular, and renal function. Consists of two major components: the central clock, residing in the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) of the brain, and the peripheral clocks that are present in nearly every tissue and organ system. Both the central and peripheral clocks can be reset by environmental cues, also known as Zeitgebers (German for 'timegivers'). The predominant Zeitgeber for the central clock is light, which is sensed by retina and signals directly to the SCN. The central clock entrains the peripheral clocks through neuronal and hormonal signals, body temperature and feeding-related cues, aligning all clocks with the external light/dark cycle. Circadian rhythms allow an organism to achieve temporal homeostasis with its environment at the molecular level by regulating gene expression to create a peak of protein expression once every 24 hours to control when a particular physiological process is most active with respect to the solar day. Transcription and translation of core clock components (CLOCK, NPAS2, ARNTL/BMAL1, ARNTL2/BMAL2, PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1 and CRY2) plays a critical role in rhythm generation, whereas delays imposed by post-translational modifications (PTMs) are important for determining the period (tau) of the rhythms (tau refers to the period of a rhythm and is the length, in time, of one complete cycle). A diurnal rhythm is synchronized with the day/night cycle, while the ultradian and infradian rhythms have a period shorter and longer than 24 hours, respectively. Disruptions in the circadian rhythms contribute to the pathology of cardiovascular diseases, cancer, metabolic syndrome and aging. A transcription/translation feedback loop (TTFL) forms the core of the molecular circadian clock mechanism. Transcription factors, CLOCK or NPAS2 and ARNTL/BMAL1 or ARNTL2/BMAL2, form the positive limb of the feedback loop, act in the form of a heterodimer and activate the transcription of core clock genes and clock-controlled genes (involved in key metabolic processes), harboring E-box elements (5'-CACGTG-3') within their promoters. The core clock genes: PER1/2/3 and CRY1/2 which are transcriptional repressors form the negative limb of the feedback loop and interact with the CLOCK|NPAS2-ARNTL/BMAL1|ARNTL2/BMAL2 heterodimer inhibiting its activity and thereby negatively regulating their own expression. This heterodimer also activates nuclear receptors NR1D1, NR1D2, RORA, RORB and RORG, which form a second feedback loop and which activate and repress ARNTL/BMAL1 transcription, respectively. PER1 and PER2 proteins transport CRY1 and CRY2 into the nucleus with appropriate circadian timing, but also contribute directly to repression of clock-controlled target genes through interaction with several classes of RNA-binding proteins, helicases and others transcriptional repressors. PER appears to regulate circadian control of transcription by at least three different modes. First, interacts directly with the CLOCK:ARTNL/BMAL1 at the tail end of the nascent transcript peak to recruit complexes containing the SIN3-HDAC that remodel chromatin to repress transcription. Second, brings H3K9 methyltransferases such as SUV39H1 and SUV39H2 to the E-box elements of the circadian target genes, like PER2 itself or PER1. The recruitment of each repressive modifier to the DNA seems to be very precisely temporally orchestrated by the large PER complex, the deacetylases acting before than the methyltransferases. Additionally, large PER complexes are also recruited to the target genes 3' termination site through interactions with RNA-binding proteins and helicases that may play a role in transcription termination to regulate transcription independently of CLOCK:ARTNL/BMAL1 interactions. Recruitment of large PER complexes to the elongating polymerase at PER and CRY termination sites inhibited SETX action, impeding RNA polymerase II release and thereby repressing transcriptional reinitiation. May propagate clock information to metabolic pathways via the interaction with nuclear receptors. Coactivator of PPARA and corepressor of NR1D1, binds rhythmically at the promoter of nuclear receptors target genes like ARNTL or G6PC. Directly and specifically represses PPARG proadipogenic activity by blocking PPARG recruitment to target promoters and thereby transcriptional activation. Required for fatty acid and lipid metabolism, is involved as well in the regulation of circulating insulin levels. Plays an important role in the maintenance of cardiovascular functions through the regulation of NO and vasodilatatory prostaglandins production in aortas. Controls circadian glutamate uptake in synaptic vesicles through the regulation of VGLUT1 expression. May also be involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Represses the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 induced transcription of BHLHE40/DEC1. Negatively regulates the formation of the TIMELESS-CRY1 complex by competing with TIMELESS for binding to CRY1.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. protein binding Source: UniProtKB
  2. signal transducer activity Source: InterPro
  3. transcription coactivator activity Source: UniProtKB
  4. transcription factor binding transcription factor activity Source: BHF-UCL
  5. transcription regulatory region sequence-specific DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  6. ubiquitin binding Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. circadian regulation of gene expression Source: UniProtKB
  2. circadian regulation of translation Source: UniProtKB
  3. circadian rhythm Source: UniProtKB
  4. fatty acid metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  5. gluconeogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  6. glycogen biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  7. histone H3 deacetylation Source: UniProtKB
  8. lactate biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  9. negative regulation of circadian rhythm Source: UniProtKB
  10. negative regulation of fat cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  11. negative regulation of protein ubiquitination Source: UniProtKB
  12. negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB
  13. negative regulation of transcription from RNA polymerase II promoter Source: BHF-UCL
  14. negative regulation of transcription regulatory region DNA binding Source: UniProtKB
  15. regulation of cell cycle Source: UniProtKB
  16. regulation of circadian rhythm Source: UniProtKB
  17. regulation of glutamate uptake involved in transmission of nerve impulse Source: UniProtKB
  18. regulation of insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
  19. regulation of neurogenesis Source: UniProtKB
  20. regulation of vasoconstriction Source: UniProtKB
  21. response to ischemia Source: UniProtKB
  22. transcription, DNA-templated Source: UniProtKB-KW
  23. white fat cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Biological processi

Biological rhythms, Transcription, Transcription regulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_196405. BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Period circadian protein homolog 2
Short name:
rPER2
Alternative name(s):
Circadian clock protein PERIOD 2
Gene namesi
Name:Per2
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
ProteomesiUP000002494: Chromosome 9

Organism-specific databases

RGDi61945. Per2.

Subcellular locationi

Nucleus. Cytoplasm. Cytoplasmperinuclear region By similarity
Note: Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling is effected by interaction with other circadian core oscillator proteins and/or by phosphorylation. Translocate to the nucleus after phosphorylation by CSNK1D or CSNK1E. Also translocated to the nucleus by CRY1 or CRY2. PML regulates its nuclear localization By similarity.1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB
  2. nucleus Source: RGD
  3. perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: UniProtKB-SubCell
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi93 – 975SGCSS → IGCSI: No effect on interaction with BTRC and FBXW11. Strongly decreases interaction with BTRC and FBXW11 and increases protein stability; when associated with 478-N--N-482. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi478 – 4825SGYGS → NGYGN: Strongly decreases interaction with BTRC and FBXW11 and increases protein stability. Strongly decreases interaction with BTRC and FBXW11 and increases protein stability; when associated with 93-I--I-97. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 12571257Period circadian protein homolog 2PRO_0000162632Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei525 – 5251Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei528 – 5281Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei531 – 5311Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei538 – 5381Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei544 – 5441Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei554 – 5541Phosphothreonine By similarity
Modified residuei659 – 6591Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei693 – 6931Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei697 – 6971Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei706 – 7061Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei758 – 7581Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei763 – 7631Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei858 – 8581Phosphothreonine By similarity
Modified residuei939 – 9391Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei964 – 9641Phosphothreonine By similarity
Modified residuei971 – 9711Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residuei1126 – 11261Phosphoserine By similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylated by CSNK1E and CSNK1D. Phosphorylation results in PER2 protein degradation. May be dephosphorylated by PP1 By similarity.
Ubiquitinated, leading to its proteasomal degradation. Ubiquitination may be inhibit by CRY1 By similarity.

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein, Ubl conjugation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9Z301.
PRIDEiQ9Z301.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in all tissues examined including eye, brain, heart, lung, spleen, liver, pancreas and kidney. In the CNS, highly expressed in the SCN, internal granular layer of granular cells of the olfactory bulb, tuberculum olfactorium, piriform cortex, gyrus dentatus of the hippocampus, cerebellum, pars tuberalis/median eminence, and pituitary, and moderately in the tenia tecta, caudate putamen, accumbens nucleus, superior and inferior colliculus and pineal gland.3 Publications

Inductioni

In eye, brain, heart, lung, spleen, liver, pancreas and kidney, expression exhibits a circadian rhythm in the presence of light/dark cycles.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ9Z301.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer. Component of the circadian core oscillator, which includes the CRY proteins, CLOCK or NPAS2, ARTNL/BMAL1 or ARTNL2/BMAL2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E, TIMELESS, and the PER proteins. Interacts with of the CLOCK-ARNTL/BMAL1 (off DNA). Interacts with ARNTL2/BMAL2. Interacts directly with PER1 and PER3, and through a C-terminal domain, with CRY1 and CRY2. Interacts, via its second PAS domain, with TIMELESS in vitro. Interacts with NFIL3. Different large complexes have been identified with different repressive functions. The core of PER complexes is composed of at least PER1, PER2, PER3, CRY1, CRY2, CSNK1D and/or CSNK1E. The large PER complex involved in the repression of transcriptional termination is composed of at least PER2, CDK9, DDX5, DHX9, NCBP1 and POLR2A (active). The large PER complex involved in the histone deacetylation is composed of at least HDAC1, PER2, SFPQ and SIN3A. The large PER complex involved in the histone methylation is composed of at least PER2, CBX3, TRIM28, SUV39H1 and/or SUV39H2; CBX3 mediates the formation of the complex. Interacts with SETX; the interaction inhibits termination of circadian target genes. Interacts with the nuclear receptors HNF4A, NR1D1, NR4A2, RORA, PPARA, PPARG and THRA; the interaction with at least PPARG is ligand dependent. Interacts with PML. Interacts (phosphorylated) with BTRC and FBXW11; the interactions trigger proteasomal degradation. Interacts with NONO and SFPQ.3 Publications

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi248899. 2 interactions.
STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000027507.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9Z301.

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Domaini179 – 24668PAS 1Add
BLAST
Domaini319 – 38567PAS 2Add
BLAST
Domaini393 – 43644PACAdd
BLAST

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni478 – 4825Important for protein stability
Regioni555 – 763209CSNK1E binding domainAdd
BLAST
Regioni882 – 1067186Interaction with PPARG By similarityAdd
BLAST
Regioni1157 – 1257101CRY binding domainAdd
BLAST

Motif

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Motifi109 – 11810Nuclear export signal 1 By similarity
Motifi306 – 3105LXXLL
Motifi460 – 46910Nuclear export signal 3 By similarity
Motifi778 – 79417Nuclear localization signal1 PublicationAdd
BLAST
Motifi983 – 9908Nuclear export signal 2 By similarity
Motifi1051 – 10555LXXLL

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Compositional biasi831 – 961131Pro-richAdd
BLAST
Compositional biasi1033 – 111179Ser-richAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Keywords - Domaini

Repeat

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG253593.
GeneTreeiENSGT00510000046467.
HOGENOMiHOG000231111.
HOVERGENiHBG008167.
InParanoidiQ9Z301.
KOiK02633.
OMAiNATAWSP.
OrthoDBiEOG78SQH2.
PhylomeDBiQ9Z301.
TreeFamiTF318445.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001610. PAC.
IPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTiSM00086. PAC. 1 hit.
SM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9Z301-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

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MNGYVDFSPS PTSPTQEPGE PQPTQAVLQE DVDMSSGSSG NENCSTGRDS     50
QGSDCDDSGK ELRMLVESSN THPSPDDTFR LMMTEAEHNP STSGCSSEQS 100
AKADAHKELI RTLRELKVHL PADKKAKGKA STLATLKYAL RSVKQVKANE 150
EYYQLLMSSE SQPCSVDVPS YTMEQVEGIT SEYIVKNSDM FAVAVSLVSG 200
KILYISNQVA PIFHCKKDAF SDAKFVEFLA PHDVSVFHSY TTPYKLPPWS 250
VSSGLDSFTQ ECMEEKSFFC RVSVGKHHEN EIRYQPFRMT PYLVKVQEQK 300
GAASQLCCLL LAERVHSGYE APRIPPEKRI FTTTHTPNCL FQDVDERAVP 350
LLGYLPQDLI ETPVLVQLHP SDRPLMLAIH KKILQASGQP FDYSPIRFRT 400
RNGEYITLDT SWSSFINPWS RKISFIIGRH KVRVGPLNED VFAASPCPEE 450
KTPHPSVQEL TEQIHRLLMQ PVPHSGSSGY GSLGSNGSHE HLMSQTSSSD 500
SNGQEESHWR RSGIFKTSGK SQSKSHFSPE SGGQKEASVA EMQSSPPAQV 550
RSVTTMERDS SGASLPKASF PEELTYKSQP PCSYQQISCL DSVIRYLESC 600
NEAATLKRKC EFPANIPSRK ATVSPGLHSG EAARSSKVTS HTEVSAHLSS 650
LALPGKAESV VSLTSQCSYS STIVHVGDKK PQPELETVED VASGPESQDD 700
AAGGLSQEKG SLQKLGLTKE VLAAHTQREE QGFLQRFREV SRLGALQAHC 750
QNYLQERSRA PASDRGLRNA SGIESSWKKT GKNRKLKSKR VKTRDSSEST 800
GSGGPVSHRP PLVGLNATAW SPSDTSQSSC PSAPFPAPVP AYPLPVFPAP 850
GIVSTPGTVV APPAAAHTGF TMPVVPMGTQ PEFAVQPLPF AAPLAPVMAF 900
MLPSYPFPPA TPNLPQAFFP SQPHFPAHPT LASEITPASQ AEFPSRTSML 950
RQPCACPVTP PAGTVALGRA SPPLFQSRGS SPLQLNLLQL EEAPESSTGA 1000
AGTLGTTGTA ASGLDCTSGA SRDRQPKAPP TCSEPSDTQN SDAISTSSDL 1050
LNLLLGEDLC SATGSALSRS GASATSDSLG SSSLGCDTSR SGAGSSDTSH 1100
TSKYFGSIDS SENNHKAKMI TDTEESEQFI KYVLQDPIWL LMANTDDNIM 1150
MTYQLPSRDL QAVLKEDQEK LKLLQRSQPH FTEGQRRELR EVHPWVHTGG 1200
LPTAIDVTGC VYCESEEKGN LCLPYEEDSP SLGLCDTSEA KEEESGQLAN 1250
PRKEAQT 1257
Length:1,257
Mass (Da):136,028
Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v1
Checksum:iA772E3C453E63CED
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AB016532 mRNA. Translation: BAA34187.1.
PIRiT13957.
RefSeqiNP_113866.1. NM_031678.1.
XP_006245538.1. XM_006245476.1.
XP_006245539.1. XM_006245477.1.
UniGeneiRn.25935.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000027506; ENSRNOP00000027507; ENSRNOG00000020254.
GeneIDi63840.
KEGGirno:63840.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
Links Updated
AB016532 mRNA. Translation: BAA34187.1 .
PIRi T13957.
RefSeqi NP_113866.1. NM_031678.1.
XP_006245538.1. XM_006245476.1.
XP_006245539.1. XM_006245477.1.
UniGenei Rn.25935.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortali Q9Z301.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi 248899. 2 interactions.
STRINGi 10116.ENSRNOP00000027507.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q9Z301.
PRIDEi Q9Z301.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENSRNOT00000027506 ; ENSRNOP00000027507 ; ENSRNOG00000020254 .
GeneIDi 63840.
KEGGi rno:63840.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 8864.
RGDi 61945. Per2.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG253593.
GeneTreei ENSGT00510000046467.
HOGENOMi HOG000231111.
HOVERGENi HBG008167.
InParanoidi Q9Z301.
KOi K02633.
OMAi NATAWSP.
OrthoDBi EOG78SQH2.
PhylomeDBi Q9Z301.
TreeFami TF318445.

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactomei REACT_196405. BMAL1:CLOCK,NPAS2 activates circadian gene expression.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi 612434.
PROi Q9Z301.

Gene expression databases

Genevestigatori Q9Z301.

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR001610. PAC.
IPR000014. PAS.
IPR013655. PAS_fold_3.
IPR022728. Period_circadian-like_C.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF08447. PAS_3. 1 hit.
PF12114. Period_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SMARTi SM00086. PAC. 1 hit.
SM00091. PAS. 2 hits.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF55785. SSF55785. 1 hit.
PROSITEi PS50112. PAS. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Multitissue circadian expression of rat period homologue (rPer2) mRNA is governed by the mammalian circadian clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus in the brain."
    Sakamoto K., Nagase T., Fukui H., Horikawa K., Okada T., Tanaka H., Sato K., Miyake Y., Ohara O., Kako K., Ishida N.
    J. Biol. Chem. 273:27039-27042(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Brain.
  2. "Molecular characterization and nuclear localization of rat timeless-like gene product."
    Sakamoto S., Miyazaki K., Fukui H., Oishi K., Hayasaka N., Okada M., Kamakura M., Taniguchi T., Nagai K., Ishida N.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 279:131-138(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH TIMELESS.
  3. "Nuclear entry mechanism of rat PER2 (rPER2): role of rPER2 in nuclear localization of CRY protein."
    Miyazaki K., Mesaki M., Ishida N.
    Mol. Cell. Biol. 21:6651-6659(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH CRY1, CRY BINDING DOMAIN, NUCLEAR LOCALIZATION SIGNAL, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
  4. "Distribution of the rhythm-related genes rPERIOD1, rPERIOD2, and rCLOCK, in the rat brain."
    Shieh K.-R.
    Neuroscience 118:831-843(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  5. Cited for: FUNCTION.
  6. "Indication of circadian oscillations in the rat pancreas."
    Muehlbauer E., Wolgast S., Finckh U., Peschke D., Peschke E.
    FEBS Lett. 564:91-96(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION.
  7. "The role of {beta}-TrCP1 and {beta}-TrCP2 in circadian rhythm generation by mediating degradation of clock protein PER2."
    Ohsaki K., Oishi K., Kozono Y., Nakayama K., Nakayama K.I., Ishida N.
    J. Biochem. 144:609-618(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INTERACTION WITH BTRC AND FBXW11, MUTAGENESIS OF 93-SER--SER-97 AND 478-SER--SER-482.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiPER2_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9Z301
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 15, 2005
Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
Last modified: September 3, 2014
This is version 102 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

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