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Protein

Growth/differentiation factor 11

Gene

Gdf11

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Secreted signal that acts globally to specify positional identity along the anterior/posterior axis during development (PubMed:10391213). May play critical roles in patterning both mesodermal and neural tissues and in establishing the skeletal pattern. Signals through activin receptors type-2, ACVR2A and ACVR2B, and activin receptors type-1, ACVR1B, ACVR1C and TGFBR1 leading to the phosphorylation of SMAD2 and SMAD3 (PubMed:16845371, PubMed:12414726).By similarity3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

  • animal organ morphogenesis Source: MGI
  • anterior/posterior pattern specification Source: MGI
  • camera-type eye morphogenesis Source: MGI
  • cell maturation Source: MGI
  • metanephros development Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell differentiation Source: MGI
  • negative regulation of cell proliferation Source: MGI
  • palate development Source: MGI
  • pancreas development Source: MGI
  • positive regulation of pathway-restricted SMAD protein phosphorylation Source: GO_Central
  • regulation of apoptotic process Source: GO_Central
  • regulation of MAPK cascade Source: GO_Central
  • skeletal system development Source: MGI
  • SMAD protein signal transduction Source: UniProtKB
  • spinal cord anterior/posterior patterning Source: MGI
  • ureteric bud development Source: MGI

Keywordsi

Molecular functionCytokine, Growth factor

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Growth/differentiation factor 11
Short name:
GDF-11
Alternative name(s):
Bone morphogenetic protein 11
Short name:
BMP-11
Gene namesi
Name:Gdf11
Synonyms:Bmp11
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome 10

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:1338027. Gdf11.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Deficient mice die neonatally showing altered patterning of the axial skeleton and impaired renal, palate, stomach, spleen and pancreatic development.1 Publication

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi120D → A: Inhibits processing of prodomain. 1 Publication1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 20Sequence analysisAdd BLAST20
PropeptideiPRO_000003398821 – 296By similarityAdd BLAST276
ChainiPRO_0000033989297 – 405Growth/differentiation factor 11Add BLAST109

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Glycosylationi92N-linked (GlcNAc...) asparagineSequence analysis1
Disulfide bondi302 ↔ 312By similarity
Disulfide bondi311 ↔ 370By similarity
Disulfide bondi339 ↔ 402By similarity
Disulfide bondi343 ↔ 404By similarity
Disulfide bondi369InterchainBy similarity

Post-translational modificationi

Synthesized as large precursor molecule that undergoes proteolytic cleavage. The mature C-terminal portion of the molecule is bound non-covalently to its N-terminal propeptide rendering it inactive. Ligand activation requires additional cleavage of the prodomain by a tolloid-like metalloproteinase.1 Publication

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sitei119 – 120Cleavage1 Publication2

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues, Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9Z1W4.
PeptideAtlasiQ9Z1W4.
PRIDEiQ9Z1W4.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9Z1W4.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9Z1W4.

Miscellaneous databases

PMAP-CutDBiQ9Z1W4.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Highly expressed in the developing limb bud, initially detected in the distal mesenchyme, and later localizing to regions around the developing bones. Is also expressed in adult dental pulp and brain.

Developmental stagei

First strongly expressed in restricted domains at 8.5 dpc where it is highest in the tail bud. At 10.5 dpc, expressed in the branchial arches, limb bud, tail bud and posterior dorsal neural tube. Later, expressed in terminally-differentiated odontoblasts, the nasal epithelium, retina and specific regions of the brain.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000025352.
CleanExiMM_GDF11.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer; disulfide-linked (By similarity). Interacts directly with ACVR2B (PubMed:16845371, PubMed:12414726). Interacts directly with ACVR2A (PubMed:12414726). Interacts with ACVR1B, TGFBR1 and ACVR1C in an ACVR2B-dependent manner (PubMed:16845371). Interacts with FST isoform 2/FS288 (By similarity).By similarity2 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi199886. 3 interactors.
DIPiDIP-29907N.
IntActiQ9Z1W4. 1 interactor.
MINTiMINT-2842224.
STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000026408.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9Z1W4.
SMRiQ9Z1W4.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Compositional bias

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Compositional biasi29 – 39Poly-AlaAdd BLAST11
Compositional biasi208 – 213Poly-Gly6

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the TGF-beta family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3900. Eukaryota.
ENOG410XT8Z. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119112.
HOGENOMiHOG000006566.
HOVERGENiHBG000217.
InParanoidiQ9Z1W4.
KOiK05497.
OMAiGSHECSA.
OrthoDBiEOG091G078V.
PhylomeDBiQ9Z1W4.
TreeFamiTF318514.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.90.10. 1 hit.
InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR029034. Cystine-knot_cytokine.
IPR001839. TGF-b_C.
IPR001111. TGF-b_propeptide.
IPR015615. TGF-beta-rel.
IPR017948. TGFb_CS.
PANTHERiPTHR11848. PTHR11848. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00019. TGF_beta. 1 hit.
PF00688. TGFb_propeptide. 1 hit.
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00204. TGFB. 1 hit.
SUPFAMiSSF57501. SSF57501. 1 hit.
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00250. TGF_BETA_1. 1 hit.
PS51362. TGF_BETA_2. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9Z1W4-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVLAAPLLLG FLLLALELRP RGEAAEGPAA AAAAAAAAAG VGGERSSRPA
60 70 80 90 100
PSAPPEPDGC PVCVWRQHSR ELRLESIKSQ ILSKLRLKEA PNISREVVKQ
110 120 130 140 150
LLPKAPPLQQ ILDLHDFQGD ALQPEDFLEE DEYHATTETV ISMAQETDPA
160 170 180 190 200
VQTDGSPLCC HFHFSPKVMF TKVLKAQLWV YLRPVPRPAT VYLQILRLKP
210 220 230 240 250
LTGEGTAGGG GGGRRHIRIR SLKIELHSRS GHWQSIDFKQ VLHSWFRQPQ
260 270 280 290 300
SNWGIEINAF DPSGTDLAVT SLGPGAEGLH PFMELRVLEN TKRSRRNLGL
310 320 330 340 350
DCDEHSSESR CCRYPLTVDF EAFGWDWIIA PKRYKANYCS GQCEYMFMQK
360 370 380 390 400
YPHTHLVQQA NPRGSAGPCC TPTKMSPINM LYFNDKQQII YGKIPGMVVD

RCGCS
Length:405
Mass (Da):44,947
Last modified:May 1, 1999 - v1
Checksum:iA74E382710A14781
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti75E → G in AAD05267 (PubMed:10072786).Curated1
Sequence conflicti171T → N in AAF21633 (PubMed:10391213).Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF100906, AF100904, AF100905 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAC72853.1.
AF028337, AF028335, AF028336 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF21633.1.
AF092734 mRNA. Translation: AAD05267.1.
CCDSiCCDS24296.1.
RefSeqiNP_034402.1. NM_010272.2.
UniGeneiMm.299218.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000026408; ENSMUSP00000026408; ENSMUSG00000025352.
GeneIDi14561.
KEGGimmu:14561.
UCSCiuc007hot.1. mouse.

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGDF11_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9Z1W4
Secondary accession number(s): Q9QX55, Q9R221
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 21, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 1999
Last modified: September 27, 2017
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families