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Protein

Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2

Gene

LACS2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Activation of long-chain fatty acids for both synthesis of cellular lipids, and degradation via beta-oxidation. Acts in the cutin pathway. Preferentially uses palmitate, palmitoleate, oleate and linoleate. Required for repression of lateral root formation through its role in cutin biosynthesis and subsequent aerial tissues permeability.5 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a long-chain fatty acid + CoA = AMP + diphosphate + an acyl-CoA.1 Publication

Cofactori

Mg2+By similarity

Pathway: fatty acid metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway fatty acid metabolism, which is part of Lipid metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway fatty acid metabolism and in Lipid metabolism.

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi228 – 23912ATPSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity Source: UniProtKB
  • very long-chain fatty acid-CoA ligase activity Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cutin biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  • defense response to fungus Source: TAIR
  • fatty acid metabolic process Source: UniProtKB
  • lateral root formation Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Ligase

Keywords - Biological processi

Fatty acid metabolism, Lipid metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Magnesium, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G49430-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G49430-MONOMER.
SABIO-RKQ9XIA9.
UniPathwayiUPA00199.

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi4.C.1.1.14. the proposed fatty acid transporter (fat) family.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2 (EC:6.2.1.3)
Alternative name(s):
Protein Botrytis resistant 1
Protein LATERAL ROOT DEVELOPMENT 2
Gene namesi
Name:LACS2
Synonyms:BRE1, LRD2, SMA4
Ordered Locus Names:At1g49430
ORF Names:F13F21.14
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G49430.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • endoplasmic reticulum Source: UniProtKB
  • plasmodesma Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Endoplasmic reticulum

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Dwarf phenotype with smaller, wrinkled leaves and overall reduced vigor. Higher water loss rate and susceptibility to drought stress. Defective in the cuticular membrane. Strong resistance to virulent Botrytis cinerea and enhanced susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae.4 Publications

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 665665Long chain acyl-CoA synthetase 2PRO_0000401410Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9XIA9.
PRIDEiQ9XIA9.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed along the entire length of the stem, but expression was not entirely epidermal specific, with some expression found in internal cell layers as well. Was expressed in leave epidermal cells, flowers (sepals, petals, stamens, filaments and carpel), siliques and developing seeds. In roots, expression was detected in an internal cell layer, probably the endodermal layer.2 Publications

Inductioni

Positively regulated by WIN1.1 Publication

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT1G49430.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9XIA9.
SMRiQ9XIA9. Positions 48-579.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni496 – 52025Fatty acid-bindingSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1022.
HOGENOMiHOG000159459.
InParanoidiQ9XIA9.
KOiK01897.
OMAiVIENYCI.
PhylomeDBiQ9XIA9.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9XIA9-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSLAADNVLL VEEGRPATAE HPSAGPVYRC KYAKDGLLDL PTDIDSPWQF
60 70 80 90 100
FSEAVKKYPN EQMLGQRVTT DSKVGPYTWI TYKEAHDAAI RIGSAIRSRG
110 120 130 140 150
VDPGHCCGIY GANCPEWIIA MEACMSQGIT YVPLYDSLGV NAVEFIINHA
160 170 180 190 200
EVSLVFVQEK TVSSILSCQK GCSSNLKTIV SFGEVSSTQK EEAKNQCVSL
210 220 230 240 250
FSWNEFSLMG NLDEANLPRK RKTDICTIMY TSGTTGEPKG VILNNAAISV
260 270 280 290 300
QVLSIDKMLE VTDRSCDTSD VFFSYLPLAH CYDQVMEIYF LSRGSSVGYW
310 320 330 340 350
RGDIRYLMDD VQALKPTVFC GVPRVYDKLY AGIMQKISAS GLIRKKLFDF
360 370 380 390 400
AYNYKLGNMR KGFSQEEASP RLDRLMFDKI KEALGGRAHM LLSGAAPLPR
410 420 430 440 450
HVEEFLRIIP ASNLSQGYGL TESCGGSFTT LAGVFSMVGT VGVPMPTVEA
460 470 480 490 500
RLVSVPEMGY DAFSADVPRG EICLRGNSMF SGYHKRQDLT DQVLIDGWFH
510 520 530 540 550
TGDIGEWQED GSMKIIDRKK NIFKLSQGEY VAVENLENTY SRCPLIAQIW
560 570 580 590 600
VYGNSFESFL VGVVVPDRKA IEDWAKLNYQ SPNDFESLCQ NLKAQKYFLD
610 620 630 640 650
ELNSTAKQYQ LKGFEMLKAI HLEPNPFDIE RDLITPTFKL KRPQLLQHYK
660
GIVDQLYSEA KRSMA
Length:665
Mass (Da):74,389
Last modified:November 1, 1999 - v1
Checksum:i9B1566F79A1B2D1A
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF503752 mRNA. Translation: AAM28869.1.
AC007504 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD43157.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE32429.1.
AY065424 mRNA. Translation: AAL38865.1.
AY094420 mRNA. Translation: AAM19793.1.
BT001970 mRNA. Translation: AAN71969.1.
PIRiG96530.
RefSeqiNP_175368.2. NM_103833.4.
UniGeneiAt.27757.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G49430.1; AT1G49430.1; AT1G49430.
GeneIDi841367.
KEGGiath:AT1G49430.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF503752 mRNA. Translation: AAM28869.1.
AC007504 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAD43157.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE32429.1.
AY065424 mRNA. Translation: AAL38865.1.
AY094420 mRNA. Translation: AAM19793.1.
BT001970 mRNA. Translation: AAN71969.1.
PIRiG96530.
RefSeqiNP_175368.2. NM_103833.4.
UniGeneiAt.27757.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9XIA9.
SMRiQ9XIA9. Positions 48-579.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT1G49430.1.

Protein family/group databases

TCDBi4.C.1.1.14. the proposed fatty acid transporter (fat) family.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9XIA9.
PRIDEiQ9XIA9.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G49430.1; AT1G49430.1; AT1G49430.
GeneIDi841367.
KEGGiath:AT1G49430.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G49430.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiCOG1022.
HOGENOMiHOG000159459.
InParanoidiQ9XIA9.
KOiK01897.
OMAiVIENYCI.
PhylomeDBiQ9XIA9.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00199.
BioCyciARA:AT1G49430-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G49430-MONOMER.
SABIO-RKQ9XIA9.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9XIA9.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR020845. AMP-binding_CS.
IPR000873. AMP-dep_Synth/Lig.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00501. AMP-binding. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00455. AMP_BINDING. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Arabidopsis contains nine long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase genes that participate in fatty acid and glycerolipid metabolism."
    Shockey J.M., Fulda M.S., Browse J.A.
    Plant Physiol. 129:1710-1722(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], GENE FAMILY, ENZYME ACTIVITY.
  2. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Arabidopsis contains a large superfamily of acyl-activating enzymes. Phylogenetic and biochemical analysis reveals a new class of acyl-coenzyme a synthetases."
    Shockey J.M., Fulda M.S., Browse J.
    Plant Physiol. 132:1065-1076(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: GENE FAMILY ORGANIZATION.
  6. "The acyl-CoA synthetase encoded by LACS2 is essential for normal cuticle development in Arabidopsis."
    Schnurr J., Shockey J., Browse J.
    Plant Cell 16:629-642(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  7. "Osmotic regulation of root system architecture."
    Deak K.I., Malamy J.
    Plant J. 43:17-28(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  8. "A permeable cuticle in Arabidopsis leads to a strong resistance to Botrytis cinerea."
    Bessire M., Chassot C., Jacquat A.C., Humphry M., Borel S., Petetot J.M., Metraux J.P., Nawrath C.
    EMBO J. 26:2158-2168(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, FUNCTION.
  9. "The transcription factor WIN1/SHN1 regulates Cutin biosynthesis in Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Kannangara R., Branigan C., Liu Y., Penfield T., Rao V., Mouille G., Hoefte H., Pauly M., Riechmann J.L., Broun P.
    Plant Cell 19:1278-1294(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION BY WIN1.
  10. "Mutations in LACS2, a long-chain acyl-coenzyme A synthetase, enhance susceptibility to avirulent Pseudomonas syringae but confer resistance to Botrytis cinerea in Arabidopsis."
    Tang D., Simonich M.T., Innes R.W.
    Plant Physiol. 144:1093-1103(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, FUNCTION.
  11. "Root system architecture in Arabidopsis grown in culture is regulated by sucrose uptake in the aerial tissues."
    Macgregor D.R., Deak K.I., Ingram P.A., Malamy J.E.
    Plant Cell 20:2643-2660(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  12. "Arabidopsis CER8 encodes LONG-CHAIN ACYL-COA SYNTHETASE 1 (LACS1) that has overlapping functions with LACS2 in plant wax and cutin synthesis."
    Lue S., Song T., Kosma D.K., Parsons E.P., Rowland O., Jenks M.A.
    Plant J. 59:553-564(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  13. "Organ fusion and defective cuticle function in a lacs1 lacs2 double mutant of Arabidopsis."
    Weng H., Molina I., Shockey J., Browse J.
    Planta 231:1089-1100(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiLACS2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9XIA9
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 30, 2010
Last sequence update: November 1, 1999
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 92 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.