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Protein

Bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductase

Gene

DFR

Organism
Malus domestica (Apple) (Pyrus malus)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Bifunctional enzyme involved in flavonoid metabolism. May use dihydroquercetin, dihydrokaempferol, eriodictyol, garbanzol (5-deoxydihydrokaempferol), dihydrofisetin (5-deoxydihydroquercetin), naringenin to a low extent (10%), but not 5-deoxynaringenin or butin (5-deoxyeriodictyol) as substrate.1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

A (2R,3S,4S)-leucoanthocyanidin + NADP+ = a (2R,3R)-dihydroflavonol + NADPH.1 Publication
(2S)-flavan-4-ol + NADP+ = (2S)-flavanone + NADPH.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=3.9 µM for eriodictyol1 Publication
  2. KM=34.0 µM for dihydrokaempferol1 Publication
  3. KM=26.0 µM for dihydroquercetin1 Publication
  1. Vmax=4.6 nmol/sec/g enzyme toward eriodictyol1 Publication
  2. Vmax=186.0 nmol/sec/g enzyme toward dihydrokaempferol1 Publication
  3. Vmax=91.0 nmol/sec/g enzyme toward dihydroquercetin1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 5.75 with dihydroquercetin as substrate.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Oxidoreductase

Keywords - Biological processi

Flavonoid biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

NADP

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi1.1.1.234. 3165.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductase
Alternative name(s):
Dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (EC:1.1.1.2191 Publication)
Short name:
DFR
Dihydrokaempferol 4-reductase
Flavanone 4-reductase (EC:1.1.1.2341 Publication)
Short name:
FNR
Gene namesi
Name:DFR
OrganismiMalus domestica (Apple) (Pyrus malus)
Taxonomic identifieri3750 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsfabidsRosalesRosaceaeMaloideaeMaleaeMalus

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00003670561 – 348Bifunctional dihydroflavonol 4-reductase/flavanone 4-reductaseAdd BLAST348

Expressioni

Developmental stagei

Expressed during fruit ripening.1 Publication

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9XES5.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

KOiK13082.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001509. Epimerase_deHydtase.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01370. Epimerase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9XES5-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MGSESESVCV TGASGFIGSW LVMRLLEHGY TVRATVRDPT NQKKVKHLLD
60 70 80 90 100
LPKAETHLTL WKADLADEGS FDEAIQGCSG VFHVATPMDF ESKDPENEVI
110 120 130 140 150
KPTINGLLDI LKACQKAKTV RKLVFTSSAG TVNVEEHQKP VYDESNWSDV
160 170 180 190 200
EFCRSVKMTG WMYFVSKTLA EQAAWKYAKE NNIDFITIIP TLVIGPFLMP
210 220 230 240 250
SMPPSLITGL SPILRNESHY GIIKQGQYVH LDDLCLSHIY LYEHPKAEGR
260 270 280 290 300
YICSSHDATI HELVKMLREK YPEYNIPTKF KGIDDNLEPV HFSSKKLREI
310 320 330 340
GFEFKYSLED MFVGAVDACR AKGLIPIPIP AEKTEAAEES NLVDVKVG
Length:348
Mass (Da):39,030
Last modified:November 1, 1999 - v1
Checksum:i02056428FB2F9372
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Natural varianti347V → A in strain: cv. M9. 1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF117268 mRNA. Translation: AAD26204.1.
AY227729 mRNA. Translation: AAO39817.1.
AY227728 mRNA. Translation: AAO39816.1.
AB074488 mRNA. Translation: BAB92999.1.
RefSeqiNP_001280868.1. NM_001293939.1.
UniGeneiMdo.2977.

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi103450464.
KEGGimdm:103450464.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF117268 mRNA. Translation: AAD26204.1.
AY227729 mRNA. Translation: AAO39817.1.
AY227728 mRNA. Translation: AAO39816.1.
AB074488 mRNA. Translation: BAB92999.1.
RefSeqiNP_001280868.1. NM_001293939.1.
UniGeneiMdo.2977.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9XES5.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

GeneIDi103450464.
KEGGimdm:103450464.

Phylogenomic databases

KOiK13082.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi1.1.1.234. 3165.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR001509. Epimerase_deHydtase.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01370. Epimerase. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiDFRA_MALDO
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9XES5
Secondary accession number(s): Q84KP1, Q8L5N3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: March 24, 2009
Last sequence update: November 1, 1999
Last modified: November 30, 2016
This is version 61 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.