Skip Header

You are using a version of browser that may not display all the features of this website. Please consider upgrading your browser.
Protein

UDP-glucose 4-epimerase

Gene

Gale

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes two distinct but analogous reactions: the reversible epimerization of UDP-glucose to UDP-galactose and the reversible epimerization of UDP-N-acetylglucosamine to UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine (PubMed:20519568, PubMed:22654673). The reaction with UDP-Gal plays a critical role in the Leloir pathway of galactose catabolism in which galactose is converted to the glycolytic intermediate glucose 6-phosphate. It contributes to the catabolism of dietary galactose and enables the endogenous biosynthesis of both UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc when exogenous sources are limited (PubMed:22654673). Both UDP-sugar interconversions are important in the synthesis of glycoproteins and glycolipids.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

UDP-alpha-D-glucose = UDP-alpha-D-galactose.2 Publications
UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-glucosamine = UDP-N-acetyl-alpha-D-galactosamine.1 Publication

Cofactori

NAD+By similarity

Pathwayi: galactose metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway galactose metabolism, which is part of Carbohydrate metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway galactose metabolism and in Carbohydrate metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei89 – 891NAD; via carbonyl oxygenBy similarity
Binding sitei93 – 931NADBy similarity
Active sitei158 – 1581Proton acceptorBy similarity
Binding sitei162 – 1621NADBy similarity
Binding sitei186 – 1861NADBy similarity
Binding sitei240 – 2401SubstrateBy similarity

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi13 – 153NADBy similarity
Nucleotide bindingi34 – 385NADBy similarity
Nucleotide bindingi67 – 682NADBy similarity

GO - Molecular functioni

  • UDP-glucose 4-epimerase activity Source: FlyBase
  • UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase activity Source: FlyBase

GO - Biological processi

  • galactose metabolic process Source: FlyBase
  • larval lymph gland hemopoiesis Source: FlyBase
  • sensory perception of pain Source: FlyBase
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Isomerase

Keywords - Biological processi

Carbohydrate metabolism, Galactose metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

NAD

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-DME-70370. Galactose catabolism.
UniPathwayiUPA00214.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
UDP-glucose 4-epimerase2 Publications (EC:5.1.3.22 Publications)
Alternative name(s):
Galactowaldenase
UDP-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-epimerase1 Publication
Short name:
UDP-GalNAc 4-epimerase1 Publication
UDP-N-acetylglucosamine 4-epimerase1 Publication (EC:5.1.3.71 Publication)
Short name:
UDP-GlcNAc 4-epimerase1 Publication
UDP-galactose 4-epimerase2 Publications
Gene namesi
Name:Gale
ORF Names:CG12030
OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
Proteomesi
  • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome 3L

Organism-specific databases

FlyBaseiFBgn0035147. Gale.

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Required from embryogenesis through pupation, even in the absence of galactose. Loss of Gale during pupation leads to defects in fecundity, both in male and female. Gale activity toward UDP-Gal is both necessary and sufficient for male fecundity, but Gale activities toward both UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc are required for female fecundity. Eggs may require a more substantial pool of specific UDP-sugar substrates than sperm. Individual loss of one activity or the other later in development results in differential sensitivity to galactose. Both male and female deficient in Gale activity toward UDP-Gal exhibit a reduced lifespan when exposed to galactose; this effect is not seen in flies uniquely deficient in Gale activity toward UDP-GalNAc.1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 350350UDP-glucose 4-epimerasePRO_0000183192Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9W0P5.
PRIDEiQ9W0P5.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9W0P5.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9W0P5. differential.
GenevisibleiQ9W0P5. DM.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Homodimer.By similarity

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi63631. 24 interactions.
DIPiDIP-20343N.
IntActiQ9W0P5. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-914196.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0072455.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9W0P5.
SMRiQ9W0P5. Positions 6-348.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni133 – 1353Substrate bindingBy similarity
Regioni186 – 1883Substrate bindingBy similarity
Regioni207 – 2093Substrate bindingBy similarity
Regioni225 – 2273Substrate bindingBy similarity
Regioni303 – 3064Substrate bindingBy similarity

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1371. Eukaryota.
COG1087. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063128.
InParanoidiQ9W0P5.
KOiK01784.
OMAiCGCKVYN.
OrthoDBiEOG77T14P.
PhylomeDBiQ9W0P5.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005886. GalE.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
IPR008089. Nuc_sugar_epim.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF16363. GDP_Man_Dehyd. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01713. NUCEPIMERASE.
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01179. galE. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9W0P5-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAPPTVLVTG GAGYIGSHTV LEMLNAGYNV ICVDNLCNAY SSGAKLPEAL
60 70 80 90 100
SRVQEITGKK VNFYRVDITD REQVRSVFQE HKIDMVAHFA ALKAVGESCR
110 120 130 140 150
IPLQYYHNNM TGTNVLLEAM ADNNVFKFVY SSSATVYGEP KFLPVTEEHP
160 170 180 190 200
TGNCTSPYGK TKYFTEEILK DLCKSDKRWA VVSLRYFNPV GAHISGRIGE
210 220 230 240 250
DPNGEPNNLM PYIAQVAVGR RPSLSVYGSD FPTHDGTGVR DYIHIVDLAE
260 270 280 290 300
GHVKALDKLR NIAETGFFAY NLGTGVGYSV LDMVKAFEKA SGKKVNYTLV
310 320 330 340 350
DRRSGDVATC YADATLADKK LGWKAERGID KMCEDTWRWQ SQNPNGYANK
Length:350
Mass (Da):38,697
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i0F14EDCCB089ADF5
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF47398.1.
AY058582 mRNA. Translation: AAL13811.1.
RefSeqiNP_001246537.1. NM_001259608.2.
NP_612044.1. NM_138200.4.
UniGeneiDm.4155.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0072556; FBpp0072455; FBgn0035147.
FBtr0306917; FBpp0297771; FBgn0035147.
GeneIDi38076.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG12030.
UCSCiCG12030-RA. d. melanogaster.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AE014296 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF47398.1.
AY058582 mRNA. Translation: AAL13811.1.
RefSeqiNP_001246537.1. NM_001259608.2.
NP_612044.1. NM_138200.4.
UniGeneiDm.4155.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9W0P5.
SMRiQ9W0P5. Positions 6-348.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi63631. 24 interactions.
DIPiDIP-20343N.
IntActiQ9W0P5. 2 interactions.
MINTiMINT-914196.
STRINGi7227.FBpp0072455.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9W0P5.
PRIDEiQ9W0P5.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0072556; FBpp0072455; FBgn0035147.
FBtr0306917; FBpp0297771; FBgn0035147.
GeneIDi38076.
KEGGidme:Dmel_CG12030.
UCSCiCG12030-RA. d. melanogaster.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi2582.
FlyBaseiFBgn0035147. Gale.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG1371. Eukaryota.
COG1087. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00530000063128.
InParanoidiQ9W0P5.
KOiK01784.
OMAiCGCKVYN.
OrthoDBiEOG77T14P.
PhylomeDBiQ9W0P5.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00214.
ReactomeiR-DME-70370. Galactose catabolism.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii38076.
PROiQ9W0P5.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9W0P5.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9W0P5. differential.
GenevisibleiQ9W0P5. DM.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.40.50.720. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR005886. GalE.
IPR016040. NAD(P)-bd_dom.
IPR008089. Nuc_sugar_epim.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF16363. GDP_Man_Dehyd. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01713. NUCEPIMERASE.
SUPFAMiSSF51735. SSF51735. 1 hit.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR01179. galE. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "The genome sequence of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Adams M.D., Celniker S.E., Holt R.A., Evans C.A., Gocayne J.D., Amanatides P.G., Scherer S.E., Li P.W., Hoskins R.A., Galle R.F., George R.A., Lewis S.E., Richards S., Ashburner M., Henderson S.N., Sutton G.G., Wortman J.R., Yandell M.D.
    , Zhang Q., Chen L.X., Brandon R.C., Rogers Y.-H.C., Blazej R.G., Champe M., Pfeiffer B.D., Wan K.H., Doyle C., Baxter E.G., Helt G., Nelson C.R., Miklos G.L.G., Abril J.F., Agbayani A., An H.-J., Andrews-Pfannkoch C., Baldwin D., Ballew R.M., Basu A., Baxendale J., Bayraktaroglu L., Beasley E.M., Beeson K.Y., Benos P.V., Berman B.P., Bhandari D., Bolshakov S., Borkova D., Botchan M.R., Bouck J., Brokstein P., Brottier P., Burtis K.C., Busam D.A., Butler H., Cadieu E., Center A., Chandra I., Cherry J.M., Cawley S., Dahlke C., Davenport L.B., Davies P., de Pablos B., Delcher A., Deng Z., Mays A.D., Dew I., Dietz S.M., Dodson K., Doup L.E., Downes M., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunkov B.C., Dunn P., Durbin K.J., Evangelista C.C., Ferraz C., Ferriera S., Fleischmann W., Fosler C., Gabrielian A.E., Garg N.S., Gelbart W.M., Glasser K., Glodek A., Gong F., Gorrell J.H., Gu Z., Guan P., Harris M., Harris N.L., Harvey D.A., Heiman T.J., Hernandez J.R., Houck J., Hostin D., Houston K.A., Howland T.J., Wei M.-H., Ibegwam C., Jalali M., Kalush F., Karpen G.H., Ke Z., Kennison J.A., Ketchum K.A., Kimmel B.E., Kodira C.D., Kraft C.L., Kravitz S., Kulp D., Lai Z., Lasko P., Lei Y., Levitsky A.A., Li J.H., Li Z., Liang Y., Lin X., Liu X., Mattei B., McIntosh T.C., McLeod M.P., McPherson D., Merkulov G., Milshina N.V., Mobarry C., Morris J., Moshrefi A., Mount S.M., Moy M., Murphy B., Murphy L., Muzny D.M., Nelson D.L., Nelson D.R., Nelson K.A., Nixon K., Nusskern D.R., Pacleb J.M., Palazzolo M., Pittman G.S., Pan S., Pollard J., Puri V., Reese M.G., Reinert K., Remington K., Saunders R.D.C., Scheeler F., Shen H., Shue B.C., Siden-Kiamos I., Simpson M., Skupski M.P., Smith T.J., Spier E., Spradling A.C., Stapleton M., Strong R., Sun E., Svirskas R., Tector C., Turner R., Venter E., Wang A.H., Wang X., Wang Z.-Y., Wassarman D.A., Weinstock G.M., Weissenbach J., Williams S.M., Woodage T., Worley K.C., Wu D., Yang S., Yao Q.A., Ye J., Yeh R.-F., Zaveri J.S., Zhan M., Zhang G., Zhao Q., Zheng L., Zheng X.H., Zhong F.N., Zhong W., Zhou X., Zhu S.C., Zhu X., Smith H.O., Gibbs R.A., Myers E.W., Rubin G.M., Venter J.C.
    Science 287:2185-2195(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
  2. Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: Berkeley.
  3. "A Drosophila full-length cDNA resource."
    Stapleton M., Carlson J.W., Brokstein P., Yu C., Champe M., George R.A., Guarin H., Kronmiller B., Pacleb J.M., Park S., Wan K.H., Rubin G.M., Celniker S.E.
    Genome Biol. 3:RESEARCH0080.1-RESEARCH0080.8(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: Berkeley.
    Tissue: Embryo.
  4. "UDP-galactose 4' epimerase (GALE) is essential for development of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Sanders R.D., Sefton J.M., Moberg K.H., Fridovich-Keil J.L.
    Dis. Model. Mech. 3:628-638(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY.
  5. "UDP-galactose 4'-epimerase activities toward UDP-Gal and UDP-GalNAc play different roles in the development of Drosophila melanogaster."
    Daenzer J.M., Sanders R.D., Hang D., Fridovich-Keil J.L.
    PLoS Genet. 8:E1002721-E1002721(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALE_DROME
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9W0P5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 2000
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: June 8, 2016
This is version 128 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Drosophila
    Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.