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Protein

Peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA

Gene

PGRP-SA

Organism
Drosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Peptidoglycan-recognition protein that plays a key role in innate immnunity by binding to peptidoglycans (PGN) of Gram-positive bacteria and activating the Toll pathway. Has no activity against on Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. Shows some partial redundancy with PRPGP-SD in Gram-positive bacteria recognition. May act by forming a complex with GNBP1 that activates the proteolytic cleavage of Spatzle and the subsequent activation of Toll pathway. Binds to diaminopimelic acid-type tetrapeptide PGN (DAP-type PGN) and lysine-type PGN (Lys-type PGN). Has some L,D-carboxypeptidase activity for DAP-type PGN, which are specific to prokaryotes, but not for Lys-type PGN.4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelyl-D-alanine + H2O = GlcNAc-MurNAc-L-alanyl-gamma-D-glutamyl-meso-diaminopimelate + D-alanine.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=21.4 µM for GlcNAc-MurNAc(anhydro)-L-Ala-gamma-D-Glu-meso-DAP-D-Ala1 Publication

    Sites

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Binding sitei182 – 1821PeptidoglycanCurated

    GO - Molecular functioni

    • muramyl dipeptide binding Source: FlyBase
    • peptidase activity Source: UniProtKB-KW
    • peptidoglycan binding Source: UniProtKB
    • peptidoglycan receptor activity Source: FlyBase
    • signaling pattern recognition receptor activity Source: FlyBase
    • zinc ion binding Source: InterPro

    GO - Biological processi

    • defense response Source: FlyBase
    • defense response to Gram-positive bacterium Source: UniProtKB
    • detection of bacterium Source: FlyBase
    • immune response Source: FlyBase
    • innate immune response Source: UniProtKB
    • peptidoglycan catabolic process Source: UniProtKB
    • positive regulation of biosynthetic process of antibacterial peptides active against Gram-positive bacteria Source: FlyBase
    • regulation of Toll signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
    • response to peptidoglycan Source: FlyBase
    • Toll signaling pathway Source: FlyBase
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hydrolase, Protease

    Keywords - Biological processi

    Immunity, Innate immunity

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Peptidoglycan-recognition protein SA (EC:3.4.17.13)
    Alternative name(s):
    Protein semmelweis
    Gene namesi
    Name:PGRP-SA
    Synonyms:seml
    ORF Names:CG11709
    OrganismiDrosophila melanogaster (Fruit fly)
    Taxonomic identifieri7227 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaEcdysozoaArthropodaHexapodaInsectaPterygotaNeopteraEndopterygotaDipteraBrachyceraMuscomorphaEphydroideaDrosophilidaeDrosophilaSophophora
    Proteomesi
    • UP000000803 Componenti: Chromosome X

    Organism-specific databases

    FlyBaseiFBgn0030310. PGRP-SA.

    Subcellular locationi

    • Secreted 1 Publication

    • Note: Secreted in hemolymph.

    GO - Cellular componenti

    • extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
    • integral component of plasma membrane Source: FlyBase
    Complete GO annotation...

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Mutagenesis

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Mutagenesisi37 – 371C → A: Does not affect activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi68 – 681H → A: Abolishes L,D-carboxypeptidase activity on DAP-type PGN. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi70 – 712VT → AA: Strongly reduces PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi74 – 741C → A: Abolishes activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi80 – 801C → Y in seml; induces susceptibility to Gram-positive bacterial infection. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi90 – 912YH → AA: Strongly reduces PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi96 – 983DFN → AAA: Strongly reduces PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi101 – 1011S → A: Increases PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi126 – 1261Y → A: Strongly reduces PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi180 – 1801I → A: Strongly reduces PGN-binding. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi182 – 1821T → Y: Abolishes PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. 1 Publication
    Mutagenesisi184 – 1841S → A or C: Abolishes PGN-binding and activation of Toll pathway. Abolishes L,D-carboxypeptidase activity on DAP-type PGN. 1 Publication

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 26261 PublicationAdd
    BLAST
    Chaini27 – 203177Peptidoglycan-recognition protein SAPRO_0000023906Add
    BLAST

    Amino acid modifications

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Disulfide bondi37 ↔ 160
    Disulfide bondi74 ↔ 80

    Keywords - PTMi

    Disulfide bond

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ9VYX7.
    PRIDEiQ9VYX7.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    In larvae, it is expressed in fat body. Also expressed in uninduced hemocytes and mbn-2 cells.2 Publications

    Inductioni

    Strongly up-regulated by PGN from B.subtilis. Regulated by both imd/Relish and Toll pathways.2 Publications

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiFBgn0030310.
    ExpressionAtlasiQ9VYX7. differential.
    GenevisibleiQ9VYX7. DM.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-60775N.
    STRINGi7227.FBpp0073358.

    Structurei

    Secondary structure

    1
    203
    Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
    Show more details
    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Helixi43 – 464Combined sources
    Beta strandi59 – 6810Combined sources
    Helixi76 – 9318Combined sources
    Beta strandi101 – 1066Combined sources
    Beta strandi112 – 1165Combined sources
    Beta strandi123 – 1253Combined sources
    Turni129 – 1313Combined sources
    Beta strandi132 – 1398Combined sources
    Beta strandi142 – 1443Combined sources
    Helixi148 – 16316Combined sources
    Beta strandi166 – 17510Combined sources
    Helixi176 – 1783Combined sources
    Beta strandi180 – 1823Combined sources
    Helixi187 – 1937Combined sources

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1S2JX-ray2.20A/B1-203[»]
    1SXRX-ray1.56A/B27-203[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9VYX7.
    SMRiQ9VYX7. Positions 37-203.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ9VYX7.

    Family & Domainsi

    Region

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Regioni87 – 904Peptidoglycan bindingCurated
    Regioni97 – 1026Peptidoglycan bindingCurated

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG410IYTD. Eukaryota.
    ENOG4111PQD. LUCA.
    InParanoidiQ9VYX7.
    KOiK01446.
    OMAiRFVVIHH.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0O6Z.
    PhylomeDBiQ9VYX7.

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd06583. PGRP. 1 hit.
    Gene3Di3.40.80.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR002502. Amidase_domain.
    IPR017331. Peptidoglycan_recognition.
    IPR015510. PGRP.
    IPR006619. PGRP_domain_met/bac.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11022. PTHR11022. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF01510. Amidase_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF037945. PGRPs. 1 hit.
    SMARTiSM00644. Ami_2. 1 hit.
    SM00701. PGRP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF55846. SSF55846. 1 hit.

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q9VYX7-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

    « Hide

            10         20         30         40         50
    MQPVRFGSPW IMAIGLVLLL LAFVSAGKSR QRSPANCPTI KLKRQWGGKP
    60 70 80 90 100
    SLGLHYQVRP IRYVVIHHTV TGECSGLLKC AEILQNMQAY HQNELDFNDI
    110 120 130 140 150
    SYNFLIGNDG IVYEGTGWGL RGAHTYGYNA IGTGIAFIGN FVDKLPSDAA
    160 170 180 190 200
    LQAAKDLLAC GVQQGELSED YALIAGSQVI STQSPGLTLY NEIQEWPHWL

    SNP
    Length:203
    Mass (Da):22,260
    Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
    Checksum:iD200A6EA79C66731
    GO

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF207540 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG23734.1.
    AF207541 mRNA. Translation: AAG23735.1.
    AJ556551 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89116.1.
    AJ556552 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89117.1.
    AJ556553 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89118.1.
    AJ556554 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89119.1.
    AJ556555 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89120.1.
    AJ556556 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89121.1.
    AJ556557 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89122.1.
    AJ556558 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89123.1.
    AJ556559 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89124.1.
    AJ556560 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89125.1.
    AJ556561 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89126.1.
    AE014298 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF48056.1.
    AY075293 mRNA. Translation: AAL68160.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001285128.1. NM_001298199.1.
    NP_572727.1. NM_132499.3.
    UniGeneiDm.14186.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0073509; FBpp0073358; FBgn0030310.
    FBtr0340296; FBpp0309257; FBgn0030310.
    GeneIDi32099.
    KEGGidme:Dmel_CG11709.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBLi
    GenBanki
    DDBJi
    Links Updated
    AF207540 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG23734.1.
    AF207541 mRNA. Translation: AAG23735.1.
    AJ556551 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89116.1.
    AJ556552 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89117.1.
    AJ556553 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89118.1.
    AJ556554 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89119.1.
    AJ556555 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89120.1.
    AJ556556 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89121.1.
    AJ556557 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89122.1.
    AJ556558 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89123.1.
    AJ556559 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89124.1.
    AJ556560 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89125.1.
    AJ556561 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAD89126.1.
    AE014298 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF48056.1.
    AY075293 mRNA. Translation: AAL68160.1.
    RefSeqiNP_001285128.1. NM_001298199.1.
    NP_572727.1. NM_132499.3.
    UniGeneiDm.14186.

    3D structure databases

    Select the link destinations:
    PDBei
    RCSB PDBi
    PDBji
    Links Updated
    EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
    1S2JX-ray2.20A/B1-203[»]
    1SXRX-ray1.56A/B27-203[»]
    ProteinModelPortaliQ9VYX7.
    SMRiQ9VYX7. Positions 37-203.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    DIPiDIP-60775N.
    STRINGi7227.FBpp0073358.

    Proteomic databases

    PaxDbiQ9VYX7.
    PRIDEiQ9VYX7.

    Protocols and materials databases

    Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsemblMetazoaiFBtr0073509; FBpp0073358; FBgn0030310.
    FBtr0340296; FBpp0309257; FBgn0030310.
    GeneIDi32099.
    KEGGidme:Dmel_CG11709.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi32099.
    FlyBaseiFBgn0030310. PGRP-SA.

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiENOG410IYTD. Eukaryota.
    ENOG4111PQD. LUCA.
    InParanoidiQ9VYX7.
    KOiK01446.
    OMAiRFVVIHH.
    OrthoDBiEOG091G0O6Z.
    PhylomeDBiQ9VYX7.

    Miscellaneous databases

    EvolutionaryTraceiQ9VYX7.
    GenomeRNAii32099.
    PROiQ9VYX7.

    Gene expression databases

    BgeeiFBgn0030310.
    ExpressionAtlasiQ9VYX7. differential.
    GenevisibleiQ9VYX7. DM.

    Family and domain databases

    CDDicd06583. PGRP. 1 hit.
    Gene3Di3.40.80.10. 1 hit.
    InterProiIPR002502. Amidase_domain.
    IPR017331. Peptidoglycan_recognition.
    IPR015510. PGRP.
    IPR006619. PGRP_domain_met/bac.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR11022. PTHR11022. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF01510. Amidase_2. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    PIRSFiPIRSF037945. PGRPs. 1 hit.
    SMARTiSM00644. Ami_2. 1 hit.
    SM00701. PGRP. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]
    SUPFAMiSSF55846. SSF55846. 1 hit.
    ProtoNetiSearch...

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiPGPSA_DROME
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9VYX7
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: May 10, 2005
    Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
    Last modified: September 7, 2016
    This is version 121 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programDrosophila annotation project

    Miscellaneousi

    Caution

    Although suggested, the interaction with GNBP1 has not been experimentally demonstrated.1 Publication

    Keywords - Technical termi

    3D-structure, Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Drosophila
      Drosophila: entries, gene names and cross-references to FlyBase
    2. PDB cross-references
      Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    Similar proteinsi

    Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
    100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
    90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
    50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.