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Protein

Lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase

Gene

ST3GAL5

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Catalyzes the formation of ganglioside GM3 (alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-2,3-beta-D-galactosyl-1, 4-beta-D-glucosylceramide).1 Publication

Catalytic activityi

CMP-N-acetylneuraminate + beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide = CMP + alpha-N-acetylneuraminyl-(2->3)-beta-D-galactosyl-(1->4)-beta-D-glucosyl-(1<->1)-ceramide.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase activity Source: UniProtKB
  2. neolactotetraosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase activity Source: ProtInc
  3. sialyltransferase activity Source: ProtInc

GO - Biological processi

  1. carbohydrate metabolic process Source: ProtInc
  2. cellular protein metabolic process Source: Reactome
  3. dolichol-linked oligosaccharide biosynthetic process Source: Reactome
  4. ganglioside biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  5. glycosphingolipid biosynthetic process Source: ProtInc
  6. post-translational protein modification Source: Reactome
  7. protein N-linked glycosylation via asparagine Source: Reactome
  8. sialylation Source: GOC
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Glycosyltransferase, Transferase

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.4.99.9. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_264366. Sialic acid metabolism.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGT29. Glycosyltransferase Family 29.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (EC:2.4.99.9)
Alternative name(s):
CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase
Ganglioside GM3 synthase
ST3Gal V
Short name:
ST3GalV
Sialyltransferase 9
Gene namesi
Name:ST3GAL5
Synonyms:SIAT9
ORF Names:UNQ2510/PRO5998
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 2

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:10872. ST3GAL5.

Subcellular locationi

Topology

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Topological domaini1 – 6161CytoplasmicSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Transmembranei62 – 8221Helical; Signal-anchor for type II membrane proteinSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST
Topological domaini83 – 418336LumenalSequence AnalysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. Golgi membrane Source: UniProtKB
  2. integral component of Golgi membrane Source: InterPro
  3. integral component of membrane Source: ProtInc
  4. integral component of plasma membrane Source: ProtInc
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Golgi apparatus, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Involvement in diseasei

Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome (AIES)1 Publication

The disease is caused by mutations affecting the gene represented in this entry.

Disease descriptionAn autosomal recessive, infantile-onset symptomatic epilepsy associated with developmental stagnation and blindness.

See also OMIM:609056

Keywords - Diseasei

Epilepsy, Mental retardation

Organism-specific databases

MIMi609056. phenotype.
Orphaneti171714. Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome.
370938. Salt-and-pepper syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA35773.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 418418Lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferasePRO_0000149302Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Glycosylationi86 – 861N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Disulfide bondi195 ↔ 353By similarity
Glycosylationi236 – 2361N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis
Glycosylationi390 – 3901N-linked (GlcNAc...)Sequence Analysis

Post-translational modificationi

N-glycosylated.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Disulfide bond, Glycoprotein

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UNP4.
PaxDbiQ9UNP4.
PRIDEiQ9UNP4.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9UNP4.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ubiquitous. High expression in brain, skeletal muscle, placenta, and testis.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UNP4.
CleanExiHS_ST3GAL5.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9UNP4. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriQ9UNP4.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA034708.
HPA040425.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114389. 3 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000366549.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UNP4.
SMRiQ9UNP4. Positions 118-413.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the glycosyltransferase 29 family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal-anchor, Transmembrane, Transmembrane helix

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG257001.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119095.
HOVERGENiHBG056676.
InParanoidiQ9UNP4.
KOiK03370.
OMAiFFWKQVA.
PhylomeDBiQ9UNP4.
TreeFamiTF352819.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001675. Glyco_trans_29.
IPR012163. Sialyl_trans.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00777. Glyco_transf_29. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005557. Sialyl_trans. 1 hit.

Sequences (3)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 3 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9UNP4-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MRTKAAGCAE RRPLQPRTEA AAAPAGRAMP SEYTYVKLRS DCSRPSLQWY
60 70 80 90 100
TRAQSKMRRP SLLLKDILKC TLLVFGVWIL YILKLNYTTE ECDMKKMHYV
110 120 130 140 150
DPDHVKRAQK YAQQVLQKEC RPKFAKTSMA LLFEHRYSVD LLPFVQKAPK
160 170 180 190 200
DSEAESKYDP PFGFRKFSSK VQTLLELLPE HDLPEHLKAK TCRRCVVIGS
210 220 230 240 250
GGILHGLELG HTLNQFDVVI RLNSAPVEGY SEHVGNKTTI RMTYPEGAPL
260 270 280 290 300
SDLEYYSNDL FVAVLFKSVD FNWLQAMVKK ETLPFWVRLF FWKQVAEKIP
310 320 330 340 350
LQPKHFRILN PVIIKETAFD ILQYSEPQSR FWGRDKNVPT IGVIAVVLAT
360 370 380 390 400
HLCDEVSLAG FGYDLNQPRT PLHYFDSQCM AAMNFQTMHN VTTETKFLLK
410
LVKEGVVKDL SGGIDREF
Length:418
Mass (Da):47,990
Last modified:May 19, 2008 - v4
Checksum:iB423540B31C27A8A
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9UNP4-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-28: Missing.

Show »
Length:390
Mass (Da):45,099
Checksum:i30EC0B46B4C29DBF
GO
Isoform 3 (identifier: Q9UNP4-3) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     1-23: Missing.
     24-28: PAGRA → MASVP

Show »
Length:395
Mass (Da):45,585
Checksum:i961126EE86517F66
GO

Sequence cautioni

The sequence AAD14634.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
The sequence AAF66146.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
The sequence AAQ89463.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated
The sequence AAY24147.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction. Curated
The sequence BAA33950.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous initiation. Curated

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti104 – 1041H → R.3 Publications
Corresponds to variant rs3731824 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_025510

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei1 – 2828Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_033686Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei1 – 2323Missing in isoform 3. 1 PublicationVSP_033687Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei24 – 285PAGRA → MASVP in isoform 3. 1 PublicationVSP_033688

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB018356 mRNA. Translation: BAA33950.1. Different initiation.
AF119415 mRNA. Translation: AAF66146.1. Different initiation.
AY152815 mRNA. Translation: AAO16866.2.
AF105026 mRNA. Translation: AAD14634.1. Different initiation.
AK001340 mRNA. Translation: BAG50894.1.
AC105053 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAY24147.1. Sequence problems.
CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW99475.1.
CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW99479.1.
BC065936 mRNA. Translation: AAH65936.2.
AY359105 mRNA. Translation: AAQ89463.1. Different initiation.
CCDSiCCDS1986.2. [Q9UNP4-1]
CCDS42705.1. [Q9UNP4-3]
RefSeqiNP_001035902.1. NM_001042437.1. [Q9UNP4-3]
NP_003887.3. NM_003896.3. [Q9UNP4-1]
UniGeneiHs.415117.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000377332; ENSP00000366549; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-1]
ENST00000393805; ENSP00000377394; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-2]
ENST00000393808; ENSP00000377397; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-3]
GeneIDi8869.
KEGGihsa:8869.
UCSCiuc002sqp.1. human. [Q9UNP4-3]
uc002sqq.1. human. [Q9UNP4-1]

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi189047140.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

GGDB

GlycoGene database

Functional Glycomics Gateway - GTase

ST3Gal V

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB018356 mRNA. Translation: BAA33950.1. Different initiation.
AF119415 mRNA. Translation: AAF66146.1. Different initiation.
AY152815 mRNA. Translation: AAO16866.2.
AF105026 mRNA. Translation: AAD14634.1. Different initiation.
AK001340 mRNA. Translation: BAG50894.1.
AC105053 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAY24147.1. Sequence problems.
CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW99475.1.
CH471053 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAW99479.1.
BC065936 mRNA. Translation: AAH65936.2.
AY359105 mRNA. Translation: AAQ89463.1. Different initiation.
CCDSiCCDS1986.2. [Q9UNP4-1]
CCDS42705.1. [Q9UNP4-3]
RefSeqiNP_001035902.1. NM_001042437.1. [Q9UNP4-3]
NP_003887.3. NM_003896.3. [Q9UNP4-1]
UniGeneiHs.415117.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UNP4.
SMRiQ9UNP4. Positions 118-413.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi114389. 3 interactions.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000366549.

Protein family/group databases

CAZyiGT29. Glycosyltransferase Family 29.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9UNP4.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi189047140.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UNP4.
PaxDbiQ9UNP4.
PRIDEiQ9UNP4.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi8869.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000377332; ENSP00000366549; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-1]
ENST00000393805; ENSP00000377394; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-2]
ENST00000393808; ENSP00000377397; ENSG00000115525. [Q9UNP4-3]
GeneIDi8869.
KEGGihsa:8869.
UCSCiuc002sqp.1. human. [Q9UNP4-3]
uc002sqq.1. human. [Q9UNP4-1]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8869.
GeneCardsiGC02M086066.
HGNCiHGNC:10872. ST3GAL5.
HPAiHPA034708.
HPA040425.
MIMi604402. gene.
609056. phenotype.
neXtProtiNX_Q9UNP4.
Orphaneti171714. Amish infantile epilepsy syndrome.
370938. Salt-and-pepper syndrome.
PharmGKBiPA35773.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG257001.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119095.
HOVERGENiHBG056676.
InParanoidiQ9UNP4.
KOiK03370.
OMAiFFWKQVA.
PhylomeDBiQ9UNP4.
TreeFamiTF352819.

Enzyme and pathway databases

BRENDAi2.4.99.9. 2681.
ReactomeiREACT_264366. Sialic acid metabolism.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiST3GAL5. human.
GeneWikiiST3GAL5.
GenomeRNAii8869.
NextBioi33295.
PROiQ9UNP4.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UNP4.
CleanExiHS_ST3GAL5.
ExpressionAtlasiQ9UNP4. baseline and differential.
GenevestigatoriQ9UNP4.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR001675. Glyco_trans_29.
IPR012163. Sialyl_trans.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF00777. Glyco_transf_29. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF005557. Sialyl_trans. 1 hit.
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Expression cloning and functional characterization of human cDNA for ganglioside GM3 synthase."
    Ishii A., Ohta M., Watanabe Y., Matsuda K., Ishiyama K., Sakoe K., Nakamura M., Inokuchi J., Sanai Y., Saito M.
    J. Biol. Chem. 273:31652-31655(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANT ARG-104, CHARACTERIZATION.
  2. "Molecular cloning and expression of ceramide galactosyltransferases. Comparison with other glycosyltransferases."
    Kapitonov D.
    Thesis (1998), Medical College of Viriginia, United States
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), VARIANT ARG-104.
    Tissue: Brain.
  3. "Molecular cloning of CMP-NeuAc:lactosylceramide alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase cDNA from human fetal brain."
    Kim K.-W., Kim K.-S., Do S.-I., Kim C.-H., Lee Y.-C.
    Submitted (OCT-1998) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
    Tissue: Fetal brain.
  4. "Human GM3 synthase: a new mRNA variant encodes an NH2-terminal extended form of the protein."
    Berselli P., Zava S., Sottocornola E., Milani S., Berra B., Colombo I.
    Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1759:348-358(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 3), FUNCTION, GLYCOSYLATION.
    Tissue: Placenta.
  5. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
  6. "Generation and annotation of the DNA sequences of human chromosomes 2 and 4."
    Hillier L.W., Graves T.A., Fulton R.S., Fulton L.A., Pepin K.H., Minx P., Wagner-McPherson C., Layman D., Wylie K., Sekhon M., Becker M.C., Fewell G.A., Delehaunty K.D., Miner T.L., Nash W.E., Kremitzki C., Oddy L., Du H.
    , Sun H., Bradshaw-Cordum H., Ali J., Carter J., Cordes M., Harris A., Isak A., van Brunt A., Nguyen C., Du F., Courtney L., Kalicki J., Ozersky P., Abbott S., Armstrong J., Belter E.A., Caruso L., Cedroni M., Cotton M., Davidson T., Desai A., Elliott G., Erb T., Fronick C., Gaige T., Haakenson W., Haglund K., Holmes A., Harkins R., Kim K., Kruchowski S.S., Strong C.M., Grewal N., Goyea E., Hou S., Levy A., Martinka S., Mead K., McLellan M.D., Meyer R., Randall-Maher J., Tomlinson C., Dauphin-Kohlberg S., Kozlowicz-Reilly A., Shah N., Swearengen-Shahid S., Snider J., Strong J.T., Thompson J., Yoakum M., Leonard S., Pearman C., Trani L., Radionenko M., Waligorski J.E., Wang C., Rock S.M., Tin-Wollam A.-M., Maupin R., Latreille P., Wendl M.C., Yang S.-P., Pohl C., Wallis J.W., Spieth J., Bieri T.A., Berkowicz N., Nelson J.O., Osborne J., Ding L., Meyer R., Sabo A., Shotland Y., Sinha P., Wohldmann P.E., Cook L.L., Hickenbotham M.T., Eldred J., Williams D., Jones T.A., She X., Ciccarelli F.D., Izaurralde E., Taylor J., Schmutz J., Myers R.M., Cox D.R., Huang X., McPherson J.D., Mardis E.R., Clifton S.W., Warren W.C., Chinwalla A.T., Eddy S.R., Marra M.A., Ovcharenko I., Furey T.S., Miller W., Eichler E.E., Bork P., Suyama M., Torrents D., Waterston R.H., Wilson R.K.
    Nature 434:724-731(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  7. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  8. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA], VARIANT ARG-104.
    Tissue: Skin.
  9. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] OF 5-418 (ISOFORM 1).
  10. Cited for: INVOLVEMENT IN AIES.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiSIAT9_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UNP4
Secondary accession number(s): B3KM82
, D6W5L9, O94902, Q53QU1, Q6NZX4, Q6YFL1
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 10, 2002
Last sequence update: May 19, 2008
Last modified: March 31, 2015
This is version 126 of the entry and version 4 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 2
    Human chromosome 2: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.