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Q9ULZ1

- APEL_HUMAN

UniProt

Q9ULZ1 - APEL_HUMAN

Protein

Apelin

Gene

APLN

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at transcript leveli
  1. Functioni

    Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.1 Publication

    GO - Molecular functioni

    1. receptor binding Source: ProtInc

    GO - Biological processi

    1. drinking behavior Source: Ensembl
    2. immune response Source: ProtInc
    3. lactation Source: ProtInc
    4. negative regulation of blood pressure Source: Ensembl
    5. negative regulation of vasoconstriction Source: Ensembl
    6. positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
    7. positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion Source: Ensembl
    8. positive regulation of corticotropin secretion Source: Ensembl
    9. positive regulation of heat generation Source: Ensembl
    10. positive regulation of phosphorylation Source: Ensembl
    11. positive regulation of vasodilation Source: Ensembl
    12. regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange Source: Ensembl
    13. regulation of the force of heart contraction Source: Ensembl
    14. signal transduction Source: ProtInc

    Keywords - Molecular functioni

    Hormone

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    ReactomeiREACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

    Names & Taxonomyi

    Protein namesi
    Recommended name:
    Apelin
    Alternative name(s):
    APJ endogenous ligand
    Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
    Gene namesi
    Name:APLN
    Synonyms:APEL
    OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
    Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
    Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
    ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome X

    Organism-specific databases

    HGNCiHGNC:16665. APLN.

    Subcellular locationi

    GO - Cellular componenti

    1. extracellular region Source: Reactome
    2. extracellular space Source: Ensembl
    3. perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: Ensembl

    Keywords - Cellular componenti

    Secreted

    Pathology & Biotechi

    Organism-specific databases

    PharmGKBiPA134984493.

    PTM / Processingi

    Molecule processing

    Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
    Signal peptidei1 – 2222Sequence AnalysisAdd
    BLAST
    Propeptidei23 – 4119By similarityPRO_0000001759Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei42 – 7736Apelin-36By similarityPRO_0000001760Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei47 – 7731Apelin-31By similarityPRO_0000001761Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei50 – 7728Apelin-28By similarityPRO_0000001762Add
    BLAST
    Peptidei65 – 7713Apelin-13By similarityPRO_0000001763Add
    BLAST

    Post-translational modificationi

    Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.

    Keywords - PTMi

    Cleavage on pair of basic residues

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEiQ9ULZ1.

    Expressioni

    Tissue specificityi

    Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressiQ9ULZ1.
    BgeeiQ9ULZ1.
    CleanExiHS_APLN.
    GenevestigatoriQ9ULZ1.

    Interactioni

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi114385. 1 interaction.
    IntActiQ9ULZ1. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi9606.ENSP00000305464.

    Structurei

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortaliQ9ULZ1.
    ModBaseiSearch...
    MobiDBiSearch...

    Family & Domainsi

    Sequence similaritiesi

    Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

    Keywords - Domaini

    Signal

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGiNOG86365.
    HOGENOMiHOG000033992.
    HOVERGENiHBG018249.
    KOiK05225.
    OrthoDBiEOG7W6WNK.
    PhylomeDBiQ9ULZ1.
    TreeFamiTF339660.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProiIPR026155. Apelin.
    [Graphical view]
    PANTHERiPTHR15953. PTHR15953. 1 hit.
    PfamiPF15360. Apelin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view]

    Sequencei

    Sequence statusi: Complete.

    Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

    Q9ULZ1-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

    « Hide

    MNLRLCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGGSLMPLPD GNGLEDGNVR HLVQPRGSRN   50
    GPGPWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF 77
    Length:77
    Mass (Da):8,569
    Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
    Checksum:i41521E0DBE97BFDA
    GO

    Sequence cautioni

    The sequence CAI95697.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AB023493 mRNA. Translation: BAA84975.1.
    AF179680 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF25815.1.
    AL022162 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI95697.1. Sequence problems.
    BC021104 mRNA. Translation: AAH21104.2.
    CCDSiCCDS48165.1.
    RefSeqiNP_059109.3. NM_017413.4.
    UniGeneiHs.303084.

    Genome annotation databases

    EnsembliENST00000307484; ENSP00000305464; ENSG00000171388.
    GeneIDi8862.
    KEGGihsa:8862.
    UCSCiuc004eus.3. human.

    Cross-referencesi

    Sequence databases

    Select the link destinations:
    EMBL
    GenBank
    DDBJ
    Links Updated
    AB023493 mRNA. Translation: BAA84975.1 .
    AF179680 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF25815.1 .
    AL022162 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI95697.1 . Sequence problems.
    BC021104 mRNA. Translation: AAH21104.2 .
    CCDSi CCDS48165.1.
    RefSeqi NP_059109.3. NM_017413.4.
    UniGenei Hs.303084.

    3D structure databases

    ProteinModelPortali Q9ULZ1.
    ModBasei Search...
    MobiDBi Search...

    Protein-protein interaction databases

    BioGridi 114385. 1 interaction.
    IntActi Q9ULZ1. 1 interaction.
    STRINGi 9606.ENSP00000305464.

    Proteomic databases

    PRIDEi Q9ULZ1.

    Protocols and materials databases

    DNASUi 8862.
    Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

    Genome annotation databases

    Ensembli ENST00000307484 ; ENSP00000305464 ; ENSG00000171388 .
    GeneIDi 8862.
    KEGGi hsa:8862.
    UCSCi uc004eus.3. human.

    Organism-specific databases

    CTDi 8862.
    GeneCardsi GC0XM128779.
    HGNCi HGNC:16665. APLN.
    MIMi 300297. gene.
    neXtProti NX_Q9ULZ1.
    PharmGKBi PA134984493.
    GenAtlasi Search...

    Phylogenomic databases

    eggNOGi NOG86365.
    HOGENOMi HOG000033992.
    HOVERGENi HBG018249.
    KOi K05225.
    OrthoDBi EOG7W6WNK.
    PhylomeDBi Q9ULZ1.
    TreeFami TF339660.

    Enzyme and pathway databases

    Reactomei REACT_14819. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
    REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.

    Miscellaneous databases

    GeneWikii Apelin.
    GenomeRNAii 8862.
    NextBioi 33277.
    PROi Q9ULZ1.
    SOURCEi Search...

    Gene expression databases

    ArrayExpressi Q9ULZ1.
    Bgeei Q9ULZ1.
    CleanExi HS_APLN.
    Genevestigatori Q9ULZ1.

    Family and domain databases

    InterProi IPR026155. Apelin.
    [Graphical view ]
    PANTHERi PTHR15953. PTHR15953. 1 hit.
    Pfami PF15360. Apelin. 1 hit.
    [Graphical view ]
    ProtoNeti Search...

    Publicationsi

    1. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Brain.
    2. "Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum."
      Habata Y., Fujii R., Hosoya M., Fukusumi S., Kawamata Y., Hinuma S., Kitada C., Nishizawa N., Murosaki S., Kurokawa T., Onda H., Tatemoto K., Fujino M.
      Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1452:25-35(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
      Tissue: Brain.
    3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
      Tissue: Hypothalamus.
    4. "The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome."
      Ross M.T., Grafham D.V., Coffey A.J., Scherer S., McLay K., Muzny D., Platzer M., Howell G.R., Burrows C., Bird C.P., Frankish A., Lovell F.L., Howe K.L., Ashurst J.L., Fulton R.S., Sudbrak R., Wen G., Jones M.C.
      , Hurles M.E., Andrews T.D., Scott C.E., Searle S., Ramser J., Whittaker A., Deadman R., Carter N.P., Hunt S.E., Chen R., Cree A., Gunaratne P., Havlak P., Hodgson A., Metzker M.L., Richards S., Scott G., Steffen D., Sodergren E., Wheeler D.A., Worley K.C., Ainscough R., Ambrose K.D., Ansari-Lari M.A., Aradhya S., Ashwell R.I., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C.L., Ballabio A., Banerjee R., Barker G.E., Barlow K.F., Barrett I.P., Bates K.N., Beare D.M., Beasley H., Beasley O., Beck A., Bethel G., Blechschmidt K., Brady N., Bray-Allen S., Bridgeman A.M., Brown A.J., Brown M.J., Bonnin D., Bruford E.A., Buhay C., Burch P., Burford D., Burgess J., Burrill W., Burton J., Bye J.M., Carder C., Carrel L., Chako J., Chapman J.C., Chavez D., Chen E., Chen G., Chen Y., Chen Z., Chinault C., Ciccodicola A., Clark S.Y., Clarke G., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Clerc-Blankenburg K., Clifford K., Cobley V., Cole C.G., Conquer J.S., Corby N., Connor R.E., David R., Davies J., Davis C., Davis J., Delgado O., Deshazo D., Dhami P., Ding Y., Dinh H., Dodsworth S., Draper H., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunham A., Dunn M., Durbin K.J., Dutta I., Eades T., Ellwood M., Emery-Cohen A., Errington H., Evans K.L., Faulkner L., Francis F., Frankland J., Fraser A.E., Galgoczy P., Gilbert J., Gill R., Gloeckner G., Gregory S.G., Gribble S., Griffiths C., Grocock R., Gu Y., Gwilliam R., Hamilton C., Hart E.A., Hawes A., Heath P.D., Heitmann K., Hennig S., Hernandez J., Hinzmann B., Ho S., Hoffs M., Howden P.J., Huckle E.J., Hume J., Hunt P.J., Hunt A.R., Isherwood J., Jacob L., Johnson D., Jones S., de Jong P.J., Joseph S.S., Keenan S., Kelly S., Kershaw J.K., Khan Z., Kioschis P., Klages S., Knights A.J., Kosiura A., Kovar-Smith C., Laird G.K., Langford C., Lawlor S., Leversha M., Lewis L., Liu W., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Loulseged H., Loveland J.E., Lovell J.D., Lozado R., Lu J., Lyne R., Ma J., Maheshwari M., Matthews L.H., McDowall J., McLaren S., McMurray A., Meidl P., Meitinger T., Milne S., Miner G., Mistry S.L., Morgan M., Morris S., Mueller I., Mullikin J.C., Nguyen N., Nordsiek G., Nyakatura G., O'dell C.N., Okwuonu G., Palmer S., Pandian R., Parker D., Parrish J., Pasternak S., Patel D., Pearce A.V., Pearson D.M., Pelan S.E., Perez L., Porter K.M., Ramsey Y., Reichwald K., Rhodes S., Ridler K.A., Schlessinger D., Schueler M.G., Sehra H.K., Shaw-Smith C., Shen H., Sheridan E.M., Shownkeen R., Skuce C.D., Smith M.L., Sotheran E.C., Steingruber H.E., Steward C.A., Storey R., Swann R.M., Swarbreck D., Tabor P.E., Taudien S., Taylor T., Teague B., Thomas K., Thorpe A., Timms K., Tracey A., Trevanion S., Tromans A.C., d'Urso M., Verduzco D., Villasana D., Waldron L., Wall M., Wang Q., Warren J., Warry G.L., Wei X., West A., Whitehead S.L., Whiteley M.N., Wilkinson J.E., Willey D.L., Williams G., Williams L., Williamson A., Williamson H., Wilming L., Woodmansey R.L., Wray P.W., Yen J., Zhang J., Zhou J., Zoghbi H., Zorilla S., Buck D., Reinhardt R., Poustka A., Rosenthal A., Lehrach H., Meindl A., Minx P.J., Hillier L.W., Willard H.F., Wilson R.K., Waterston R.H., Rice C.M., Vaudin M., Coulson A., Nelson D.L., Weinstock G., Sulston J.E., Durbin R.M., Hubbard T., Gibbs R.A., Beck S., Rogers J., Bentley D.R.
      Nature 434:325-337(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    5. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
      The MGC Project Team
      Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
      Tissue: Kidney.
    6. "Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry."
      Cayabyab M., Hinuma S., Farzan M., Choe H., Fukusumi S., Kitada C., Nishizawa N., Hosoya M., Nishimura O., Messele T., Pollakis G., Goudsmit J., Fujino M., Sodroski J.
      J. Virol. 74:11972-11976(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
      Cited for: FUNCTION.

    Entry informationi

    Entry nameiAPEL_HUMAN
    AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9ULZ1
    Secondary accession number(s): Q4VY08, Q8WU89
    Entry historyi
    Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
    Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
    Last modified: October 1, 2014
    This is version 96 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
    Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
    Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
    DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

    Miscellaneousi

    Keywords - Technical termi

    Complete proteome, Reference proteome

    Documents

    1. Human chromosome X
      Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
    2. MIM cross-references
      Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
    3. SIMILARITY comments
      Index of protein domains and families

    External Data

    Dasty 3