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Q9ULZ1 (APEL_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified April 16, 2014. Version 93. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (3) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand

Cleaved into the following 4 chains:

  1. Apelin-36
  2. Apelin-31
  3. Apelin-28
  4. Apelin-13
Gene names
Name:APLN
Synonyms:APEL
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length77 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Sequence processingThe displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.
Protein existenceEvidence at transcript level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Endogenous ligand for APJ, an alternative coreceptor with CD4 for HIV-1 infection. Inhibits HIV-1 entry in cells coexpressing CD4 and APJ. Apelin-36 has a greater inhibitory activity on HIV infection than other synthetic apelin derivatives. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior. Ref.6

Subcellular location

Secreted.

Tissue specificity

Expressed in the brain with highest levels in the frontal cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus and midbrain. Secreted by the mammary gland into the colostrum and the milk.

Post-translational modification

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.

Sequence similarities

Belongs to the apelin family.

Sequence caution

The sequence CAI95697.1 differs from that shown. Reason: Erroneous gene model prediction.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Cellular componentSecreted
   DomainSignal
   Molecular functionHormone
   PTMCleavage on pair of basic residues
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processdrinking behavior

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

immune response

Traceable author statement Ref.2. Source: ProtInc

lactation

Traceable author statement Ref.2. Source: ProtInc

negative regulation of blood pressure

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

negative regulation of vasoconstriction

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of cell proliferation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of corticotropin secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of heat generation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of phosphorylation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of vasodilation

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

regulation of the force of heart contraction

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

signal transduction

Traceable author statement Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

   Cellular_componentextracellular region

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

extracellular space

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

perinuclear region of cytoplasm

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

   Molecular_functionreceptor binding

Traceable author statement Ref.2Ref.1. Source: ProtInc

Complete GO annotation...

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Signal peptide1 – 2222 Potential
Propeptide23 – 4119 By similarity
PRO_0000001759
Peptide42 – 7736Apelin-36 By similarity
PRO_0000001760
Peptide47 – 7731Apelin-31 By similarity
PRO_0000001761
Peptide50 – 7728Apelin-28 By similarity
PRO_0000001762
Peptide65 – 7713Apelin-13 By similarity
PRO_0000001763

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Q9ULZ1 [UniParc].

Last modified May 1, 2000. Version 1.
Checksum: 41521E0DBE97BFDA

FASTA778,569
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MNLRLCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGGSLMPLPD GNGLEDGNVR HLVQPRGSRN GPGPWQGGRR 

        70 
KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF 

« Hide

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Isolation and characterization of a novel endogenous peptide ligand for the human APJ receptor."
Tatemoto K., Hosoya M., Habata Y., Fujii R., Kakegawa T., Zou M.-X., Kawamata Y., Fukusumi S., Hinuma S., Kitada C., Kurokawa T., Onda H., Fujino M.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 251:471-476(1998) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Brain.
[2]"Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan receptor APJ, is abundantly secreted in the colostrum."
Habata Y., Fujii R., Hosoya M., Fukusumi S., Kawamata Y., Hinuma S., Kitada C., Nishizawa N., Murosaki S., Kurokawa T., Onda H., Tatemoto K., Fujino M.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1452:25-35(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
Tissue: Brain.
[3]"Characterization of apelin, the ligand for the APJ receptor."
Lee D.K., Cheng R., Nguyen T., Fan T., Kariyawasam A.P., Liu Y., Osmond D.H., George S.R., O'Dowd B.F.
J. Neurochem. 74:34-41(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
Tissue: Hypothalamus.
[4]"The DNA sequence of the human X chromosome."
Ross M.T., Grafham D.V., Coffey A.J., Scherer S., McLay K., Muzny D., Platzer M., Howell G.R., Burrows C., Bird C.P., Frankish A., Lovell F.L., Howe K.L., Ashurst J.L., Fulton R.S., Sudbrak R., Wen G., Jones M.C. expand/collapse author list , Hurles M.E., Andrews T.D., Scott C.E., Searle S., Ramser J., Whittaker A., Deadman R., Carter N.P., Hunt S.E., Chen R., Cree A., Gunaratne P., Havlak P., Hodgson A., Metzker M.L., Richards S., Scott G., Steffen D., Sodergren E., Wheeler D.A., Worley K.C., Ainscough R., Ambrose K.D., Ansari-Lari M.A., Aradhya S., Ashwell R.I., Babbage A.K., Bagguley C.L., Ballabio A., Banerjee R., Barker G.E., Barlow K.F., Barrett I.P., Bates K.N., Beare D.M., Beasley H., Beasley O., Beck A., Bethel G., Blechschmidt K., Brady N., Bray-Allen S., Bridgeman A.M., Brown A.J., Brown M.J., Bonnin D., Bruford E.A., Buhay C., Burch P., Burford D., Burgess J., Burrill W., Burton J., Bye J.M., Carder C., Carrel L., Chako J., Chapman J.C., Chavez D., Chen E., Chen G., Chen Y., Chen Z., Chinault C., Ciccodicola A., Clark S.Y., Clarke G., Clee C.M., Clegg S., Clerc-Blankenburg K., Clifford K., Cobley V., Cole C.G., Conquer J.S., Corby N., Connor R.E., David R., Davies J., Davis C., Davis J., Delgado O., Deshazo D., Dhami P., Ding Y., Dinh H., Dodsworth S., Draper H., Dugan-Rocha S., Dunham A., Dunn M., Durbin K.J., Dutta I., Eades T., Ellwood M., Emery-Cohen A., Errington H., Evans K.L., Faulkner L., Francis F., Frankland J., Fraser A.E., Galgoczy P., Gilbert J., Gill R., Gloeckner G., Gregory S.G., Gribble S., Griffiths C., Grocock R., Gu Y., Gwilliam R., Hamilton C., Hart E.A., Hawes A., Heath P.D., Heitmann K., Hennig S., Hernandez J., Hinzmann B., Ho S., Hoffs M., Howden P.J., Huckle E.J., Hume J., Hunt P.J., Hunt A.R., Isherwood J., Jacob L., Johnson D., Jones S., de Jong P.J., Joseph S.S., Keenan S., Kelly S., Kershaw J.K., Khan Z., Kioschis P., Klages S., Knights A.J., Kosiura A., Kovar-Smith C., Laird G.K., Langford C., Lawlor S., Leversha M., Lewis L., Liu W., Lloyd C., Lloyd D.M., Loulseged H., Loveland J.E., Lovell J.D., Lozado R., Lu J., Lyne R., Ma J., Maheshwari M., Matthews L.H., McDowall J., McLaren S., McMurray A., Meidl P., Meitinger T., Milne S., Miner G., Mistry S.L., Morgan M., Morris S., Mueller I., Mullikin J.C., Nguyen N., Nordsiek G., Nyakatura G., O'dell C.N., Okwuonu G., Palmer S., Pandian R., Parker D., Parrish J., Pasternak S., Patel D., Pearce A.V., Pearson D.M., Pelan S.E., Perez L., Porter K.M., Ramsey Y., Reichwald K., Rhodes S., Ridler K.A., Schlessinger D., Schueler M.G., Sehra H.K., Shaw-Smith C., Shen H., Sheridan E.M., Shownkeen R., Skuce C.D., Smith M.L., Sotheran E.C., Steingruber H.E., Steward C.A., Storey R., Swann R.M., Swarbreck D., Tabor P.E., Taudien S., Taylor T., Teague B., Thomas K., Thorpe A., Timms K., Tracey A., Trevanion S., Tromans A.C., d'Urso M., Verduzco D., Villasana D., Waldron L., Wall M., Wang Q., Warren J., Warry G.L., Wei X., West A., Whitehead S.L., Whiteley M.N., Wilkinson J.E., Willey D.L., Williams G., Williams L., Williamson A., Williamson H., Wilming L., Woodmansey R.L., Wray P.W., Yen J., Zhang J., Zhou J., Zoghbi H., Zorilla S., Buck D., Reinhardt R., Poustka A., Rosenthal A., Lehrach H., Meindl A., Minx P.J., Hillier L.W., Willard H.F., Wilson R.K., Waterston R.H., Rice C.M., Vaudin M., Coulson A., Nelson D.L., Weinstock G., Sulston J.E., Durbin R.M., Hubbard T., Gibbs R.A., Beck S., Rogers J., Bentley D.R.
Nature 434:325-337(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
[5]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
Tissue: Kidney.
[6]"Apelin, the natural ligand of the orphan seven-transmembrane receptor APJ, inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 entry."
Cayabyab M., Hinuma S., Farzan M., Choe H., Fukusumi S., Kitada C., Nishizawa N., Hosoya M., Nishimura O., Messele T., Pollakis G., Goudsmit J., Fujino M., Sodroski J.
J. Virol. 74:11972-11976(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AB023493 mRNA. Translation: BAA84975.1.
AF179680 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF25815.1.
AL022162 Genomic DNA. Translation: CAI95697.1. Sequence problems.
BC021104 mRNA. Translation: AAH21104.2.
RefSeqNP_059109.3. NM_017413.4.
UniGeneHs.303084.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ9ULZ1.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid114385. 1 interaction.
IntActQ9ULZ1. 1 interaction.
STRING9606.ENSP00000305464.

Proteomic databases

PRIDEQ9ULZ1.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU8862.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000307484; ENSP00000305464; ENSG00000171388.
GeneID8862.
KEGGhsa:8862.
UCSCuc004eus.3. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTD8862.
GeneCardsGC0XM128779.
HGNCHGNC:16665. APLN.
MIM300297. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9ULZ1.
PharmGKBPA134984493.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG86365.
HOGENOMHOG000033992.
HOVERGENHBG018249.
KOK05225.
OrthoDBEOG7W6WNK.
PhylomeDBQ9ULZ1.
TreeFamTF339660.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111102. Signal Transduction.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ9ULZ1.
BgeeQ9ULZ1.
CleanExHS_APLN.
GenevestigatorQ9ULZ1.

Family and domain databases

InterProIPR026155. Apelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERPTHR15953. PTHR15953. 1 hit.
PfamPF15360. Apelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

GeneWikiApelin.
GenomeRNAi8862.
NextBio33277.
PROQ9ULZ1.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameAPEL_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9ULZ1
Secondary accession number(s): Q4VY08, Q8WU89
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: April 16, 2014
This is version 93 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human chromosome X

Human chromosome X: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM