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Q9UH92 (MLX_HUMAN) Reviewed, UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Last modified July 9, 2014. Version 128. Feed History...

Clusters with 100%, 90%, 50% identity | Documents (5) | Third-party data text xml rdf/xml gff fasta
to top of pageNames·Attributes·General annotation·Ontologies·Alt products·Sequence annotation·Sequences·References·Cross-refs·Entry info·DocumentsCustomize order

Names and origin

Protein namesRecommended name:
Max-like protein X
Alternative name(s):
Class D basic helix-loop-helix protein 13
Short name=bHLHd13
Max-like bHLHZip protein
Protein BigMax
Transcription factor-like protein 4
Gene names
Name:MLX
Synonyms:BHLHD13, TCFL4
OrganismHomo sapiens (Human) [Reference proteome]
Taxonomic identifier9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo

Protein attributes

Sequence length298 AA.
Sequence statusComplete.
Protein existenceEvidence at protein level

General annotation (Comments)

Function

Transcription regulator. Forms a sequence-specific DNA-binding protein complex with MAD1, MAD4, MNT, WBSCR14 and MLXIP which recognizes the core sequence 5'-CACGTG-3'. The TCFL4-MAD1, TCFL4-MAD4, TCFL4-WBSCR14 complexes are transcriptional repressors. Plays a role in transcriptional activation of glycolytic target genes. Involved in glucose-responsive gene regulation. Ref.1 Ref.6 Ref.7

Subunit structure

Efficient DNA binding requires dimerization with another bHLH protein. Binds DNA as a heterodimer with MAD1, MAD4, MNT, WBSCR14 and MLXIP. Can also bind DNA as a homodimer. Ref.1

Subcellular location

Isoform Alpha: Cytoplasm. Note: Found predominantly in the cytoplasm. Ref.2

Isoform Beta: Cytoplasm. Note: Found predominantly in the cytoplasm. Ref.2

Isoform Gamma: Nucleus. Note: Found predominantly in the nucleus. Ref.2

Tissue specificity

Expressed in all tissues tested, including spleen, thymus, prostate, ovary, intestine, colon, peripheral blood leukocyte, heart, liver, skeletal muscle and kidney. Lower levels of expression in testis, brain, placenta and lung. Ref.1

Sequence similarities

Contains 1 bHLH (basic helix-loop-helix) domain.

Ontologies

Keywords
   Biological processTranscription
Transcription regulation
   Cellular componentCytoplasm
Nucleus
   Coding sequence diversityAlternative splicing
Polymorphism
   LigandDNA-binding
   Molecular functionActivator
Repressor
   PTMPhosphoprotein
   Technical termComplete proteome
Reference proteome
Gene Ontology (GO)
   Biological_processenergy reserve metabolic process

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

negative regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 11230181. Source: BHF-UCL

nucleocytoplasmic transport

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: Ensembl

positive regulation of cellular metabolic process

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

regulation of transcription, DNA-templated

Non-traceable author statement Ref.1Ref.2. Source: UniProtKB

small molecule metabolic process

Traceable author statement. Source: Reactome

transcription, DNA-templated

Inferred from electronic annotation. Source: UniProtKB-KW

   Cellular_componentcytoplasm

Inferred from direct assay Ref.2. Source: UniProtKB

nucleus

Inferred from direct assay Ref.2. Source: UniProtKB

   Molecular_functionDNA binding

Inferred from direct assay PubMed 11230181. Source: BHF-UCL

protein heterodimerization activity

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 11230181. Source: BHF-UCL

protein homodimerization activity

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 11230181. Source: BHF-UCL

sequence-specific DNA binding transcription factor activity

Non-traceable author statement Ref.2. Source: UniProtKB

transcription factor binding

Inferred from physical interaction PubMed 11230181. Source: BHF-UCL

Complete GO annotation...

Alternative products

This entry describes 3 isoforms produced by alternative splicing. [Align] [Select]
Isoform Gamma (identifier: Q9UH92-1)

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.
Isoform Alpha (identifier: Q9UH92-2)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     15-68: Missing.
     81-110: Missing.
Isoform Beta (identifier: Q9UH92-3)

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     15-68: Missing.

Sequence annotation (Features)

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifier

Molecule processing

Chain1 – 298298Max-like protein X
PRO_0000127279

Regions

Domain129 – 18759bHLH
Region140 – 16021Leucine-zipper

Amino acid modifications

Modified residue451Phosphoserine By similarity
Modified residue481Phosphoserine By similarity

Natural variations

Alternative sequence15 – 6854Missing in isoform Alpha and isoform Beta.
VSP_002137
Alternative sequence81 – 11030Missing in isoform Alpha.
VSP_002138
Natural variant2231Q → R.
Corresponds to variant rs665268 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_049547

Experimental info

Sequence conflict2471D → V in AAF14638. Ref.1
Sequence conflict2981Y → C in BAA90977. Ref.3

Sequences

Sequence LengthMass (Da)Tools
Isoform Gamma [UniParc].

Last modified October 1, 2001. Version 2.
Checksum: D1981730051473C5

FASTA29833,300
        10         20         30         40         50         60 
MTEPGASPED PWVKASPVGA HAGEGRAGRA RARRGAGRRG ASLLSPKSPT LSVPRGCRED 

        70         80         90        100        110        120 
SSHPACAKVE YAYSDNSLDP GLFVESTRKG SVVSRANSIG STSASSVPNT DDEDSDYHQE 

       130        140        150        160        170        180 
AYKESYKDRR RRAHTQAEQK RRDAIKRGYD DLQTIVPTCQ QQDFSIGSQK LSKAIVLQKT 

       190        200        210        220        230        240 
IDYIQFLHKE KKKQEEEVST LRKDVTALKI MKVNYEQIVK AHQDNPHEGE DQVSDQVKFN 

       250        260        270        280        290 
VFQGIMDSLF QSFNASISVA SFQELSACVF SWIEEHCKPQ TLREIVIGVL HQLKNQLY 

« Hide

Isoform Alpha [UniParc].

Checksum: 025F90C6F253E56D
Show »

FASTA21424,905
Isoform Beta [UniParc].

Checksum: 63EED502A9FA082D
Show »

FASTA24427,883

References

« Hide 'large scale' references
[1]"Mlx, a novel Max-like bHLHZip protein that interacts with the Max network of transcription factors."
Billin A.N., Eilers A.L., Queva C., Ayer D.E.
J. Biol. Chem. 274:36344-36350(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM BETA), FUNCTION, SUBUNIT, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
Tissue: Promyelocyte.
[2]"Mlx, a new Max-like bHLHZip family member: the center stage of a novel transcription factors regulatory pathway?"
Meroni G., Cairo S., Merla G., Messali S., Brent R., Ballabio A., Reymond A.
Oncogene 19:3266-3277(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS ALPHA; BETA AND GAMMA), SUBCELLULAR LOCATION.
[3]"Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S. expand/collapse author list , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORMS ALPHA; BETA AND GAMMA).
Tissue: Brain and Colon.
[4]"Cloning of human full-length CDSs in BD Creator(TM) system donor vector."
Kalnine N., Chen X., Rolfs A., Halleck A., Hines L., Eisenstein S., Koundinya M., Raphael J., Moreira D., Kelley T., LaBaer J., Lin Y., Phelan M., Farmer A.
Submitted (AUG-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM BETA).
[5]"The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
The MGC Project Team
Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM BETA).
Tissue: Eye.
[6]"A novel heterodimerization domain, CRM1, and 14-3-3 control subcellular localization of the MondoA-Mlx heterocomplex."
Eilers A.L., Sundwall E., Lin M., Sullivan A.A., Ayer D.E.
Mol. Cell. Biol. 22:8514-8526(2002) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION, INTERACTION WITH MLXIP.
[7]"MondoA-Mlx heterodimers are candidate sensors of cellular energy status: mitochondrial localization and direct regulation of glycolysis."
Sans C.L., Satterwhite D.J., Stoltzman C.A., Breen K.T., Ayer D.E.
Mol. Cell. Biol. 26:4863-4871(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
Cited for: FUNCTION.
+Additional computationally mapped references.

Cross-references

Sequence databases

EMBL
GenBank
DDBJ
AF203978 mRNA. Translation: AAF14638.1.
AF213666 mRNA. Translation: AAG40145.1.
AF213667 mRNA. Translation: AAG40146.1.
AF213668 mRNA. Translation: AAG40147.1.
AK000150 mRNA. Translation: BAA90977.1.
AK290258 mRNA. Translation: BAF82947.1.
AK314378 mRNA. Translation: BAG37005.1.
AK315432 mRNA. Translation: BAG37820.1.
BT009812 mRNA. Translation: AAP88814.1.
BC010689 mRNA. Translation: AAH10689.1.
CCDSCCDS11430.1. [Q9UH92-1]
CCDS42341.1. [Q9UH92-2]
CCDS45687.1. [Q9UH92-3]
PIRJC5333.
RefSeqNP_733752.1. NM_170607.2. [Q9UH92-1]
NP_937847.1. NM_198204.1. [Q9UH92-3]
NP_937848.1. NM_198205.1. [Q9UH92-2]
UniGeneHs.383019.
Hs.714749.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortalQ9UH92.
SMRQ9UH92. Positions 125-191.
ModBaseSearch...
MobiDBSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGrid112805. 14 interactions.
IntActQ9UH92. 7 interactions.
MINTMINT-1475792.

Chemistry

ChEMBLCHEMBL2062357.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteQ9UH92.

Polymorphism databases

DMDM20138856.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBQ9UH92.
PaxDbQ9UH92.
PRIDEQ9UH92.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASU6945.
StructuralBiologyKnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblENST00000246912; ENSP00000246912; ENSG00000108788. [Q9UH92-1]
ENST00000346833; ENSP00000320913; ENSG00000108788. [Q9UH92-2]
ENST00000435881; ENSP00000416627; ENSG00000108788. [Q9UH92-3]
GeneID6945.
KEGGhsa:6945.
UCSCuc002iaf.3. human. [Q9UH92-3]
uc002iag.3. human. [Q9UH92-1]
uc002iah.3. human. [Q9UH92-2]

Organism-specific databases

CTD6945.
GeneCardsGC17P040719.
HGNCHGNC:11645. MLX.
HPACAB025329.
MIM602976. gene.
neXtProtNX_Q9UH92.
Orphanet3287. Takayasu arteritis.
PharmGKBPA36397.
GenAtlasSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGNOG259028.
HOVERGENHBG019061.
InParanoidQ9UH92.
KOK09113.
OMAPHILRNI.
OrthoDBEOG73805M.
PhylomeDBQ9UH92.
TreeFamTF318841.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeREACT_111217. Metabolism.

Gene expression databases

ArrayExpressQ9UH92.
BgeeQ9UH92.
CleanExHS_MLX.
GenevestigatorQ9UH92.

Family and domain databases

Gene3D4.10.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProIPR011598. bHLH_dom.
[Graphical view]
PfamPF00010. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SMARTSM00353. HLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMSSF47459. SSF47459. 1 hit.
PROSITEPS50888. BHLH. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetSearch...

Other

ChiTaRSMLX. human.
GeneWikiMLX_(gene).
GenomeRNAi6945.
NextBio27189.
PROQ9UH92.
SOURCESearch...

Entry information

Entry nameMLX_HUMAN
AccessionPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UH92
Secondary accession number(s): A8K2J3 expand/collapse secondary AC list , B2RAV8, B2RD73, Q53XM6, Q96FL2, Q9H2V0, Q9H2V1, Q9H2V2, Q9NXN3
Entry history
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: October 1, 2001
Last modified: July 9, 2014
This is version 128 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Relevant documents

SIMILARITY comments

Index of protein domains and families

MIM cross-references

Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot

Human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations

Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations

Human chromosome 17

Human chromosome 17: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM