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Protein

Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12

Gene

GNG12

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Guanine nucleotide-binding proteins (G proteins) are involved as a modulator or transducer in various transmembrane signaling systems. The beta and gamma chains are required for the GTPase activity, for replacement of GDP by GTP, and for G protein-effector interaction.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. PDZ domain binding Source: MGI
  2. phosphate ion binding Source: Ensembl
  3. signal transducer activity Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  1. cellular response to glucagon stimulus Source: Reactome
  2. cerebral cortex development Source: Ensembl
  3. energy reserve metabolic process Source: Reactome
  4. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: InterPro
  5. response to lipopolysaccharide Source: Ensembl
  6. signal transduction Source: ProtInc
  7. small molecule metabolic process Source: Reactome
  8. synaptic transmission Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Transducer

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_172761. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiQ9UBI6.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12
Gene namesi
Name:GNG12
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:19663. GNG12.

Subcellular locationi

Cell membrane Curated; Lipid-anchor Curated; Cytoplasmic side Curated

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. actin filament Source: Ensembl
  2. extracellular vesicular exosome Source: UniProtKB
  3. heterotrimeric G-protein complex Source: InterPro
  4. plasma membrane Source: Reactome
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cell membrane, Membrane

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA134956700.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methioninei1 – 11Removed1 Publication
Chaini2 – 6968Guanine nucleotide-binding protein G(I)/G(S)/G(O) subunit gamma-12PRO_0000012667Add
BLAST
Propeptidei70 – 723Removed in mature formBy similarityPRO_0000012668

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylserine1 Publication
Modified residuei26 – 261PhosphoserineBy similarity
Modified residuei49 – 491Phosphoserine1 Publication
Modified residuei69 – 691Cysteine methyl ester1 Publication
Lipidationi69 – 691S-geranylgeranyl cysteine1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation, Lipoprotein, Methylation, Phosphoprotein, Prenylation

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UBI6.
PaxDbiQ9UBI6.
PeptideAtlasiQ9UBI6.
PRIDEiQ9UBI6.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9UBI6.

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UBI6.
CleanExiHS_GNG12.
GenevestigatoriQ9UBI6.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA057790.
HPA062208.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

G proteins are composed of 3 units, alpha, beta and gamma.

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi121016. 18 interactions.
IntActiQ9UBI6. 5 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1143633.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000360021.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBI6.
SMRiQ9UBI6. Positions 10-53.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the G protein gamma family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG265454.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiQ9UBI6.
KOiK04347.
OMAiQEDCLLV.
OrthoDBiEOG7H1JP7.
PhylomeDBiQ9UBI6.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9UBI6-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSSKTASTNN IAQARRTVQQ LRLEASIERI KVSKASADLM SYCEEHARSD
60 70
PLLIGIPTSE NPFKDKKTCI IL
Length:72
Mass (Da):8,006
Last modified:January 23, 2007 - v3
Checksum:iA4C489A61697FAA9
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti29 – 291R → G in AAH05940 (PubMed:15489334).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF188181 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF04571.1.
AF123766 mRNA. Translation: AAP97245.1.
AF119663 mRNA. Translation: AAF17220.1.
AF365871 mRNA. Translation: AAK53385.1.
AF493879 mRNA. Translation: AAM12593.1.
AK293101 mRNA. Translation: BAF85790.1.
AL832431 mRNA. Translation: CAH10645.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06484.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06485.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06486.1.
BC005940 mRNA. Translation: AAH05940.1.
CCDSiCCDS30749.1.
RefSeqiNP_061329.3. NM_018841.5.
UniGeneiHs.431101.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370982; ENSP00000360021; ENSG00000172380.
GeneIDi55970.
KEGGihsa:55970.
UCSCiuc001dea.2. human.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi12229817.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF188181 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF04571.1.
AF123766 mRNA. Translation: AAP97245.1.
AF119663 mRNA. Translation: AAF17220.1.
AF365871 mRNA. Translation: AAK53385.1.
AF493879 mRNA. Translation: AAM12593.1.
AK293101 mRNA. Translation: BAF85790.1.
AL832431 mRNA. Translation: CAH10645.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06484.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06485.1.
CH471059 Genomic DNA. Translation: EAX06486.1.
BC005940 mRNA. Translation: AAH05940.1.
CCDSiCCDS30749.1.
RefSeqiNP_061329.3. NM_018841.5.
UniGeneiHs.431101.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBI6.
SMRiQ9UBI6. Positions 10-53.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi121016. 18 interactions.
IntActiQ9UBI6. 5 interactions.
MINTiMINT-1143633.
STRINGi9606.ENSP00000360021.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9UBI6.

Polymorphism databases

DMDMi12229817.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UBI6.
PaxDbiQ9UBI6.
PeptideAtlasiQ9UBI6.
PRIDEiQ9UBI6.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi55970.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000370982; ENSP00000360021; ENSG00000172380.
GeneIDi55970.
KEGGihsa:55970.
UCSCiuc001dea.2. human.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi55970.
GeneCardsiGC01M068167.
HGNCiHGNC:19663. GNG12.
HPAiHPA057790.
HPA062208.
MIMi615405. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q9UBI6.
PharmGKBiPA134956700.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG265454.
GeneTreeiENSGT00760000119218.
HOVERGENiHBG014983.
InParanoidiQ9UBI6.
KOiK04347.
OMAiQEDCLLV.
OrthoDBiEOG7H1JP7.
PhylomeDBiQ9UBI6.
TreeFamiTF319909.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_15457. G-protein activation.
REACT_1665. Glucagon signaling in metabolic regulation.
REACT_172761. Ca2+ pathway.
REACT_18274. Glucagon-like Peptide-1 (GLP1) regulates insulin secretion.
REACT_18283. G alpha (q) signalling events.
REACT_18339. Adrenaline,noradrenaline inhibits insulin secretion.
REACT_18377. Glucagon-type ligand receptors.
REACT_18407. G alpha (12/13) signalling events.
REACT_19140. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 1.
REACT_19145. G beta:gamma signalling through PLC beta.
REACT_19231. G alpha (i) signalling events.
REACT_19290. G beta:gamma signalling through PI3Kgamma.
REACT_19327. G alpha (s) signalling events.
REACT_19333. G alpha (z) signalling events.
REACT_20647. Thromboxane signalling through TP receptor.
REACT_20653. ADP signalling through P2Y purinoceptor 12.
REACT_21254. Presynaptic function of Kainate receptors.
REACT_21384. Thrombin signalling through proteinase activated receptors (PARs).
REACT_23946. Prostacyclin signalling through prostacyclin receptor.
REACT_24023. Vasopressin regulates renal water homeostasis via Aquaporins.
REACT_25004. Inhibition of voltage gated Ca2+ channels via Gbeta/gamma subunits.
REACT_75831. Activation of G protein gated Potassium channels.
SignaLinkiQ9UBI6.

Miscellaneous databases

ChiTaRSiGNG12. human.
GeneWikiiGNG12.
GenomeRNAii55970.
NextBioi61403.
PROiQ9UBI6.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UBI6.
CleanExiHS_GNG12.
GenevestigatoriQ9UBI6.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di4.10.260.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR015898. G-protein_gamma-like_dom.
IPR001770. Gprotein-gamma.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR13809. PTHR13809. 1 hit.
PfamiPF00631. G-gamma. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR00321. GPROTEING.
SMARTiSM00224. GGL. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF48670. SSF48670. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS50058. G_PROTEIN_GAMMA. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Genomic characterization of the human heterotrimeric G protein alpha, beta, and gamma subunit genes."
    Hurowitz E.H., Melnyk J.M., Chen Y.J., Kouros-Mehr H., Simon M.I., Shizuya H.
    DNA Res. 7:111-120(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
  2. "Cloning and characterizing a novel human cDNA homologous to Bos taurus G-protein gamma-12 subunit mRNA."
    Yang L., Yu L., Zhao S.Y.
    Submitted (JAN-1999) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Adrenal gland.
  4. "Identification of a region in G protein gamma subunits conserved across species but hypervariable among subunit isoforms."
    Cook L.A., Schey K.L., Cleator J.H., Wilcox M.D., Dingus J., Hildebrandt J.D.
    Protein Sci. 10:2548-2555(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
  5. "cDNA clones of human proteins involved in signal transduction sequenced by the Guthrie cDNA resource center (www.cdna.org)."
    Puhl H.L. III, Ikeda S.R., Aronstam R.S.
    Submitted (MAR-2002) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
  6. "Complete sequencing and characterization of 21,243 full-length human cDNAs."
    Ota T., Suzuki Y., Nishikawa T., Otsuki T., Sugiyama T., Irie R., Wakamatsu A., Hayashi K., Sato H., Nagai K., Kimura K., Makita H., Sekine M., Obayashi M., Nishi T., Shibahara T., Tanaka T., Ishii S.
    , Yamamoto J., Saito K., Kawai Y., Isono Y., Nakamura Y., Nagahari K., Murakami K., Yasuda T., Iwayanagi T., Wagatsuma M., Shiratori A., Sudo H., Hosoiri T., Kaku Y., Kodaira H., Kondo H., Sugawara M., Takahashi M., Kanda K., Yokoi T., Furuya T., Kikkawa E., Omura Y., Abe K., Kamihara K., Katsuta N., Sato K., Tanikawa M., Yamazaki M., Ninomiya K., Ishibashi T., Yamashita H., Murakawa K., Fujimori K., Tanai H., Kimata M., Watanabe M., Hiraoka S., Chiba Y., Ishida S., Ono Y., Takiguchi S., Watanabe S., Yosida M., Hotuta T., Kusano J., Kanehori K., Takahashi-Fujii A., Hara H., Tanase T.-O., Nomura Y., Togiya S., Komai F., Hara R., Takeuchi K., Arita M., Imose N., Musashino K., Yuuki H., Oshima A., Sasaki N., Aotsuka S., Yoshikawa Y., Matsunawa H., Ichihara T., Shiohata N., Sano S., Moriya S., Momiyama H., Satoh N., Takami S., Terashima Y., Suzuki O., Nakagawa S., Senoh A., Mizoguchi H., Goto Y., Shimizu F., Wakebe H., Hishigaki H., Watanabe T., Sugiyama A., Takemoto M., Kawakami B., Yamazaki M., Watanabe K., Kumagai A., Itakura S., Fukuzumi Y., Fujimori Y., Komiyama M., Tashiro H., Tanigami A., Fujiwara T., Ono T., Yamada K., Fujii Y., Ozaki K., Hirao M., Ohmori Y., Kawabata A., Hikiji T., Kobatake N., Inagaki H., Ikema Y., Okamoto S., Okitani R., Kawakami T., Noguchi S., Itoh T., Shigeta K., Senba T., Matsumura K., Nakajima Y., Mizuno T., Morinaga M., Sasaki M., Togashi T., Oyama M., Hata H., Watanabe M., Komatsu T., Mizushima-Sugano J., Satoh T., Shirai Y., Takahashi Y., Nakagawa K., Okumura K., Nagase T., Nomura N., Kikuchi H., Masuho Y., Yamashita R., Nakai K., Yada T., Nakamura Y., Ohara O., Isogai T., Sugano S.
    Nat. Genet. 36:40-45(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Uterus.
  7. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Melanoma.
  8. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
  9. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."
    The MGC Project Team
    Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Tissue: Brain.
  10. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Cervix carcinoma.
  11. Cited for: IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  12. Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-2, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS], CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
  13. "Large-scale top down proteomics of the human proteome: membrane proteins, mitochondria, and senescence."
    Catherman A.D., Durbin K.R., Ahlf D.R., Early B.P., Fellers R.T., Tran J.C., Thomas P.M., Kelleher N.L.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 12:3465-3473(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ISOPRENYLATION AT CYS-69, METHYLATION AT CYS-69, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY.
  14. "An enzyme assisted RP-RPLC approach for in-depth analysis of human liver phosphoproteome."
    Bian Y., Song C., Cheng K., Dong M., Wang F., Huang J., Sun D., Wang L., Ye M., Zou H.
    J. Proteomics 96:253-262(2014) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PHOSPHORYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT SER-49, IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].
    Tissue: Liver.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGBG12_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UBI6
Secondary accession number(s): Q69YP5, Q9BRV5
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 2000
Last sequence update: January 23, 2007
Last modified: March 4, 2015
This is version 140 of the entry and version 3 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 1
    Human chromosome 1: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.