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Protein

Galanin-like peptide

Gene

GALP

Organism
Homo sapiens (Human)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 4 out of 5-Experimental evidence at transcript leveli

Functioni

Isoform 1: Hypothalamic neuropeptide which binds to the G-protein-coupled galanin receptors (GALR1, GALR2 and GALR3). Involved in a large number of putative physiological functions in CNS homeostatic processes, including the regulation of gonadotropin-releasing hormone secretion.
Isoform 2: Exhibits potent and dose-dependent vasoconstrictor and anti-edema activity in the cutaneous microvasculature, a physiologic effects which does not appear to be mediated via GALR1 or GALR2. Exhibits antimicrobial activity against Gram-negative bacterias, inducing bacterial membrane blebbing (PubMed:23537644).1 Publication

GO - Biological processi

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Antibiotic, Antimicrobial, Hormone, Neuropeptide

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galanin-like peptide
Gene namesi
Name:GALP
OrganismiHomo sapiens (Human)
Taxonomic identifieri9606 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresPrimatesHaplorrhiniCatarrhiniHominidaeHomo
ProteomesiUP000005640 Componenti: Chromosome 19

Organism-specific databases

HGNCiHGNC:24840. GALP.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Organism-specific databases

PharmGKBiPA162389277.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGALP.
DMDMi20138432.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2424By similarityAdd
BLAST
Chaini25 – 8460Galanin-like peptidePRO_0000010463Add
BLAST
Propeptidei87 – 11630By similarityPRO_0000010464Add
BLAST

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UBC7.
PaxDbiQ9UBC7.
PRIDEiQ9UBC7.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Isoform 2 is found in ganglia of ganglioneuroma and ganglioneuroblastoma, as well as in differentiated tumor cells of neuroblastoma tissues. Not found in undifferentiated neuroblasts. Isoform 2 is found in the skin, in pericytes covering microvascular arterioles and venules on their abluminal surfaces. In larger vessels, isoform 2 is expressed in layers of smooth muscle cells. Isoform 2 is not detected in endothelial cells.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UBC7.
CleanExiHS_GALP.
GenevisibleiQ9UBC7. HS.

Organism-specific databases

HPAiHPA053938.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000349884.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBC7.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the galanin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG83747.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016349.
HOGENOMiHOG000112691.
HOVERGENiHBG018628.
InParanoidiQ9UBC7.
OMAiWKAIDGL.
OrthoDBiEOG738070.
PhylomeDBiQ9UBC7.
TreeFamiTF339481.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9UBC7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAPPSVPLVL LLVLLLSLAE TPASAPAHRG RGGWTLNSAG YLLGPVLHLP
60 70 80 90 100
QMGDQDGKRE TALEILDLWK AIDGLPYSHP PQPSKRNVME TFAKPEIGDL
110
GMLSMKIPKE EDVLKS
Length:116
Mass (Da):12,545
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:iEDFDE8EAE6217B51
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9UBC7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

Also known as: Alarin, del/E3

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     30-115: GRGGWTLNSA...KIPKEEDVLK → SSTFPKWVTKTERGRQPLR

Note: Cleavage of the signal peptide generates a peptide of 25 amino acids, termed alarin because of the N-terminal alanine and the C-terminal serine. Involved in ganglionic differentiation in neuroblastic tumor tissues. Vasoactive peptide.
Show »
Length:49
Mass (Da):5,321
Checksum:i967E210BA7BAF4E8
GO

Natural variant

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Natural varianti72 – 721I → M.
Corresponds to variant rs3745833 [ dbSNP | Ensembl ].
VAR_020426

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei30 – 11586GRGGW…EDVLK → SSTFPKWVTKTERGRQPLR in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_030460Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF188492 mRNA. Translation: AAF19724.1.
AF188493 mRNA. Translation: AAF19725.1.
AY329637 mRNA. Translation: AAQ99038.1.
CCDSiCCDS12940.1. [Q9UBC7-1]
CCDS46202.1. [Q9UBC7-2]
RefSeqiNP_001139018.1. NM_001145546.1. [Q9UBC7-2]
NP_149097.1. NM_033106.3. [Q9UBC7-1]
UniGeneiHs.283915.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000357330; ENSP00000349884; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-1]
ENST00000440823; ENSP00000411521; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-2]
ENST00000590002; ENSP00000464698; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-2]
GeneIDi85569.
KEGGihsa:85569.
UCSCiuc002qmo.1. human. [Q9UBC7-1]
uc010eti.2. human. [Q9UBC7-2]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing, Polymorphism

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AF188492 mRNA. Translation: AAF19724.1.
AF188493 mRNA. Translation: AAF19725.1.
AY329637 mRNA. Translation: AAQ99038.1.
CCDSiCCDS12940.1. [Q9UBC7-1]
CCDS46202.1. [Q9UBC7-2]
RefSeqiNP_001139018.1. NM_001145546.1. [Q9UBC7-2]
NP_149097.1. NM_033106.3. [Q9UBC7-1]
UniGeneiHs.283915.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9UBC7.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi9606.ENSP00000349884.

Polymorphism and mutation databases

BioMutaiGALP.
DMDMi20138432.

Proteomic databases

MaxQBiQ9UBC7.
PaxDbiQ9UBC7.
PRIDEiQ9UBC7.

Protocols and materials databases

DNASUi85569.
Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENST00000357330; ENSP00000349884; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-1]
ENST00000440823; ENSP00000411521; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-2]
ENST00000590002; ENSP00000464698; ENSG00000197487. [Q9UBC7-2]
GeneIDi85569.
KEGGihsa:85569.
UCSCiuc002qmo.1. human. [Q9UBC7-1]
uc010eti.2. human. [Q9UBC7-2]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi85569.
GeneCardsiGC19P056688.
HGNCiHGNC:24840. GALP.
HPAiHPA053938.
MIMi611178. gene.
neXtProtiNX_Q9UBC7.
PharmGKBiPA162389277.
GenAtlasiSearch...

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG83747.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000016349.
HOGENOMiHOG000112691.
HOVERGENiHBG018628.
InParanoidiQ9UBC7.
OMAiWKAIDGL.
OrthoDBiEOG738070.
PhylomeDBiQ9UBC7.
TreeFamiTF339481.

Miscellaneous databases

GenomeRNAii85569.
NextBioi76180.
PROiQ9UBC7.
SOURCEiSearch...

Gene expression databases

BgeeiQ9UBC7.
CleanExiHS_GALP.
GenevisibleiQ9UBC7. HS.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR008174. Galanin.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF01296. Galanin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PROSITEiPS00861. GALANIN. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

  1. "Isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel galanin-like peptide (GALP) from porcine hypothalamus."
    Ohtaki T., Kumano S., Ishibashi Y., Ogi K., Matsui H., Harada M., Kitada C., Kurokawa T., Onda H., Fujino M.
    J. Biol. Chem. 274:37041-37045(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1).
  2. "Differential splicing leads to the novel peptide alarin another member of the galanin-like peptide family."
    Kofler B., Moritz K., Fenninger K.
    Submitted (JUN-2003) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 2).
  3. "Gangliocytes in neuroblastic tumors express alarin, a novel peptide derived by differential splicing of the galanin-like peptide gene."
    Santic R., Fenninger K., Graf K., Schneider R., Hauser-Kronberger C., Schilling F.H., Kogner P., Ratschek M., Jones N., Sperl W., Kofler B.
    J. Mol. Neurosci. 29:145-152(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
    Tissue: Neuroblastoma.
  4. Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY (ISOFORM 2).
  5. "Alarin but not its alternative-splicing form, GALP (Galanin-like peptide) has antimicrobial activity."
    Wada A., Wong P.F., Hojo H., Hasegawa M., Ichinose A., Llanes R., Kubo Y., Senba M., Ichinose Y.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 434:223-227(2013) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION (ISOFORM 2).

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALP_HUMAN
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9UBC7
Secondary accession number(s): A1KXL3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: February 11, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: June 24, 2015
This is version 99 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program
DisclaimerAny medical or genetic information present in this entry is provided for research, educational and informational purposes only. It is not in any way intended to be used as a substitute for professional medical advice, diagnosis, treatment or care.

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Human chromosome 19
    Human chromosome 19: entries, gene names and cross-references to MIM
  2. Human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
    List of human entries with polymorphisms or disease mutations
  3. Human polymorphisms and disease mutations
    Index of human polymorphisms and disease mutations
  4. MIM cross-references
    Online Mendelian Inheritance in Man (MIM) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  5. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into Uniref entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.