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Protein

Protein FLOWERING LOCUS T

Gene

FT

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Probable component of the mobile flower-promoting signal (floral stimulus or florigen). Promotes the transition from vegetative growth to flowering. Required for 'SEPALLATA3' (SEP3) and 'FRUITFULL' (FUL) accumulation in mature rosette leaves. Seems to acts in parallel with 'LEAFY' to induce flowering by regulating 'APETALA1'. May play a role in both the autonomous and the long-day flowering pathways.3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • phosphatidylethanolamine binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  • cell differentiation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • flower development Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • photoperiodism, flowering Source: TAIR
  • positive regulation of flower development Source: TAIR
  • regulation of flower development Source: TAIR
  • regulation of stomatal movement Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Developmental protein

Keywords - Biological processi

Differentiation, Flowering

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Protein FLOWERING LOCUS T
Gene namesi
Name:FT
Ordered Locus Names:At1g65480
ORF Names:F5I14.3
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G65480.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytoplasm Source: TAIR
  • nucleus Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm, Nucleus

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi84 – 841E → K in ft-4; late-flowering.
Mutagenesisi85 – 851Y → H: Inhibition of terminal flower formation, but weak effect on flowering time. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi94 – 941P → L in ft-6; late-flowering.
Mutagenesisi110 – 1101N → M: No effect on terminal flower formation. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi119 – 1191R → H in ft-3; late-flowering.
Mutagenesisi120 – 1201V → F: No effect on terminal flower formation. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi171 – 1711G → E in ft-1; late-flowering.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 175175Protein FLOWERING LOCUS TPRO_0000204762Add
BLAST

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9SXZ2.
PRIDEiQ9SXZ2.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Mostly localized in leaves vasculature. Transcripts can move in the phloem from leaves to shoot apex at a velocity between 1.2 and 3.5 mm/h.2 Publications

Developmental stagei

Expression gradually increases with time under both long-day (LD) and short-day (SD) photoperiods. Under LD conditions, expression is first detected on day 4 and plateaued around day 6, preceeding floral commitment around days 9 and 10.

Inductioni

By light. Expression is delayed and reduced under SD conditions. Repressed by FLC. Up-Regulated by VOZ1 and/or VOZ2.2 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9SXZ2. AT.

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with FD/BZIP14 and FDP/BZIP27.2 Publications

Binary interactionsi

WithEntry#Exp.IntActNotes
FDQ84JK24EBI-636490,EBI-636507
HDG6Q9FVI62EBI-636490,EBI-1393271

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi28080. 16 interactions.
IntActiQ9SXZ2. 8 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT1G65480.1.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
175
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Helixi8 – 114Combined sources
Helixi14 – 174Combined sources
Beta strandi28 – 325Combined sources
Helixi45 – 473Combined sources
Beta strandi48 – 503Combined sources
Beta strandi53 – 564Combined sources
Beta strandi64 – 718Combined sources
Beta strandi85 – 9410Combined sources
Helixi99 – 1013Combined sources
Beta strandi102 – 1065Combined sources
Beta strandi114 – 1163Combined sources
Beta strandi118 – 1269Combined sources
Beta strandi128 – 1303Combined sources
Beta strandi137 – 1393Combined sources
Helixi144 – 1507Combined sources
Beta strandi157 – 1648Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1WKPX-ray2.60A/B/C/D1-168[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ9SXZ2.
SMRiQ9SXZ2. Positions 6-167.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9SXZ2.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3346. Eukaryota.
COG1881. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000237656.
InParanoidiQ9SXZ2.
KOiK16223.
OMAiQLLYPRR.
PhylomeDBiQ9SXZ2.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.90.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR031095. FT.
IPR001858. Phosphotidylethanolamine-bd_CS.
IPR008914. PtdEtn-bd_prot_PEBP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11362:SF9. PTHR11362:SF9. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01161. PBP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49777. SSF49777. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01220. PBP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform Long (identifier: Q9SXZ2-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MSINIRDPLI VSRVVGDVLD PFNRSITLKV TYGQREVTNG LDLRPSQVQN
60 70 80 90 100
KPRVEIGGED LRNFYTLVMV DPDVPSPSNP HLREYLHWLV TDIPATTGTT
110 120 130 140 150
FGNEIVCYEN PSPTAGIHRV VFILFRQLGR QTVYAPGWRQ NFNTREFAEI
160 170
YNLGLPVAAV FYNCQRESGC GGRRL
Length:175
Mass (Da):19,809
Last modified:December 5, 2001 - v2
Checksum:iE4051B22CE66D508
GO
Isoform Short (identifier: Q9SXZ2-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     102-122: GNEIVCYENPSPTAGIHRVVF → AWQANSVCTRVAPELQHSRVC
     123-175: Missing.

Show »
Length:122
Mass (Da):13,742
Checksum:i46AF69FE11997F89
GO

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei102 – 12221GNEIV…HRVVF → AWQANSVCTRVAPELQHSRV C in isoform Short. 1 PublicationVSP_004543Add
BLAST
Alternative sequencei123 – 17553Missing in isoform Short. 1 PublicationVSP_004544Add
BLAST

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB027504 mRNA. Translation: BAA77838.1.
AB027505 mRNA. Translation: BAA77839.1.
AF152096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF03936.1.
AC001229 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60904.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE34381.1.
AY065378 mRNA. Translation: AAL38819.1.
AY133813 mRNA. Translation: AAM91747.1.
PIRiT52447.
T52448.
RefSeqiNP_176726.1. NM_105222.2. [Q9SXZ2-1]
UniGeneiAt.469.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G65480.1; AT1G65480.1; AT1G65480. [Q9SXZ2-1]
GeneIDi842859.
KEGGiath:AT1G65480.

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB027504 mRNA. Translation: BAA77838.1.
AB027505 mRNA. Translation: BAA77839.1.
AF152096 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF03936.1.
AC001229 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAB60904.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE34381.1.
AY065378 mRNA. Translation: AAL38819.1.
AY133813 mRNA. Translation: AAM91747.1.
PIRiT52447.
T52448.
RefSeqiNP_176726.1. NM_105222.2. [Q9SXZ2-1]
UniGeneiAt.469.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
1WKPX-ray2.60A/B/C/D1-168[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ9SXZ2.
SMRiQ9SXZ2. Positions 6-167.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi28080. 16 interactions.
IntActiQ9SXZ2. 8 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT1G65480.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9SXZ2.
PRIDEiQ9SXZ2.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G65480.1; AT1G65480.1; AT1G65480. [Q9SXZ2-1]
GeneIDi842859.
KEGGiath:AT1G65480.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G65480.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG3346. Eukaryota.
COG1881. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000237656.
InParanoidiQ9SXZ2.
KOiK16223.
OMAiQLLYPRR.
PhylomeDBiQ9SXZ2.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9SXZ2.
PROiQ9SXZ2.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9SXZ2. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.90.280.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR031095. FT.
IPR001858. Phosphotidylethanolamine-bd_CS.
IPR008914. PtdEtn-bd_prot_PEBP.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR11362:SF9. PTHR11362:SF9. 1 hit.
PfamiPF01161. PBP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF49777. SSF49777. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS01220. PBP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "A pair of related genes with antagonistic roles in mediating flowering signals."
    Kobayashi Y., Kaya H., Goto K., Iwabuchi M., Araki T.
    Science 286:1960-1962(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS SHORT AND LONG), MUTANTS FT-4; FT-5 AND FT-6.
    Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta and cv. No-0.
  2. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA] (ISOFORM LONG), MUTANTS FT-1 AND FT-3.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA] (ISOFORM LONG).
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "The flowering integrator FT regulates SEPALLATA3 and FRUITFULL accumulation in Arabidopsis leaves."
    Teper-Bamnolker P., Samach A.
    Plant Cell 17:2661-2675(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION.
  7. "Integration of flowering signals in winter-annual Arabidopsis."
    Michaels S.D., Himelblau E., Kim S.Y., Schomburg F.M., Amasino R.M.
    Plant Physiol. 137:149-156(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  8. "A single amino acid converts a repressor to an activator of flowering."
    Hanzawa Y., Money T., Bradley D.
    Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 102:7748-7753(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: MUTAGENESIS OF TYR-85; ASN-110 AND VAL-120.
  9. "FD, a bZIP protein mediating signals from the floral pathway integrator FT at the shoot apex."
    Abe M., Kobayashi Y., Yamamoto S., Daimon Y., Yamaguchi A., Ikeda Y., Ichinoki H., Notaguchi M., Goto K., Araki T.
    Science 309:1052-1056(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, INTERACTION WITH FD/BZIP14 AND FDP/BZIP27.
  10. "Integration of spatial and temporal information during floral induction in Arabidopsis."
    Wigge P.A., Kim M.C., Jaeger K.-E., Busch W., Schmid M., Lohmann J.U., Weigel D.
    Science 309:1056-1059(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, INDUCTION, INTERACTION WITH FD/BZIP14 AND FDP/BZIP27.
  11. "The mRNA of the Arabidopsis gene FT moves from leaf to shoot apex and induces flowering."
    Huang T., Boehlenius H., Eriksson S., Parcy F., Nilsson O.
    Science 309:1694-1696(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  12. "The phytochrome-interacting VASCULAR PLANT ONE-ZINC FINGER1 and VOZ2 redundantly regulate flowering in Arabidopsis."
    Yasui Y., Mukougawa K., Uemoto M., Yokofuji A., Suzuri R., Nishitani A., Kohchi T.
    Plant Cell 24:3248-3263(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: INDUCTION.
  13. "A divergent external loop confers antagonistic activity on floral regulators FT and TFL1."
    Ahn J.H., Miller D., Winter V.J., Banfield M.J., Lee J.H., Yoo S.Y., Henz S.R., Brady R.L., Weigel D.
    EMBO J. 25:605-614(2006) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.6 ANGSTROMS) OF 1-163.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiFT_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9SXZ2
Secondary accession number(s): O04467
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 5, 2001
Last sequence update: December 5, 2001
Last modified: May 11, 2016
This is version 124 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Miscellaneous

Mutagenesis of Tyr-85 to His converts the activator of flowering "FLOWERING LOCUS T" into a "TERMINAL FLOWER 1"-like repressor of flowering.

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.