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Protein

Galactokinase

Gene

GAL1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Sugar-1-kinase with a very high substrate specificity for the alpha-anomeric configuration of D-galacose (D-Gal). Converts also efficiently 2-deoxy-D-Gal to 2-deoxy-D-al-1-phosphate.2 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + alpha-D-galactose = ADP + alpha-D-galactose 1-phosphate.1 Publication

Cofactori

Mg2+1 Publication, Mn2+1 Publication, Ca2+1 PublicationNote: Magnesium. Can also use other divalent cations like manganese or calcium.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=701 µM for D-galactose1 Publication
  2. KM=701 µM for ATP1 Publication
  1. Vmax=3.5 µmol/min/µg enzyme toward D-galactose1 Publication
  2. Vmax=3.3 µmol/min/µg enzyme toward ATP1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 7-8.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 30-42 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Pathwayi: galactose metabolism

This protein is involved in the pathway galactose metabolism, which is part of Carbohydrate metabolism.
View all proteins of this organism that are known to be involved in the pathway galactose metabolism and in Carbohydrate metabolism.

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sitei56 – 561Transition state stabilizerBy similarity
Active sitei210 – 2101Proton acceptorBy similarity

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Nucleotide bindingi159 – 16911ATPSequence analysisAdd
BLAST

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • galactokinase activity Source: TAIR
  • metal ion binding Source: UniProtKB-KW

GO - Biological processi

  • carbohydrate phosphorylation Source: TAIR
  • galactose metabolic process Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Kinase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Carbohydrate metabolism, Galactose metabolism

Keywords - Ligandi

ATP-binding, Calcium, Magnesium, Manganese, Metal-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G64440-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G06580-MONOMER.
UniPathwayiUPA00214.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Galactokinase (EC:2.7.1.6)
Alternative name(s):
Galactose kinase
Gene namesi
Name:GAL1
Synonyms:GALK
Ordered Locus Names:At3g06580
ORF Names:F5E6.9
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 3

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G06580.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • cytosol Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Pathology & Biotechi

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi62 – 621E → A: Loss of activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi206 – 2061S → G: Decreased specificity and phosphorylation of GalNAc. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi262 – 2621Y → F: No effect on specificity or activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi437 – 4371A → S: Reduced phosphorylation activity. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Initiator methionineiRemovedCombined sources
Chaini2 – 496495GalactokinasePRO_0000184651Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei2 – 21N-acetylalanineCombined sources

Keywords - PTMi

Acetylation

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9SEE5.
PRIDEiQ9SEE5.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in roots, stems, leaves, flowers and young siliques. Higher expression in the elongating middle stem region than in the lower or upper stem region.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9SEE5. AT.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi5172. 2 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT3G06580.1.

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9SEE5.
SMRiQ9SEE5. Positions 31-494.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the GHMP kinase family. GalK subfamily.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0631. Eukaryota.
COG0153. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000241099.
InParanoidiQ9SEE5.
KOiK18674.
OMAiCREAGAY.
PhylomeDBiQ9SEE5.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.230.10. 1 hit.
3.30.70.890. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR000705. Galactokinase.
IPR019741. Galactokinase_CS.
IPR019539. GalKase_gal-bd.
IPR013750. GHMP_kinase_C_dom.
IPR006204. GHMP_kinase_N_dom.
IPR006203. GHMP_knse_ATP-bd_CS.
IPR006206. Mevalonate/galactokinase.
IPR020568. Ribosomal_S5_D2-typ_fold.
IPR014721. Ribosomal_S5_D2-typ_fold_subgr.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10457. PTHR10457. 2 hits.
PfamiPF10509. GalKase_gal_bdg. 1 hit.
PF08544. GHMP_kinases_C. 1 hit.
PF00288. GHMP_kinases_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000530. Galactokinase. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00473. GALCTOKINASE.
PR00959. MEVGALKINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF54211. SSF54211. 1 hit.
SSF55060. SSF55060. 2 hits.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00131. gal_kin. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00106. GALACTOKINASE. 1 hit.
PS00627. GHMP_KINASES_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9SEE5-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MAKPEEVSVP IFTSLEPVYG EGSLLQEATQ RFDVLKANFN DVFGASPQLF
60 70 80 90 100
ARSPGRVNLI GEHIDYEGYS VLPMAIRQDT IIAIRKCEDQ KQLRIANVND
110 120 130 140 150
KYTMCTYPAD PDQEIDLKNH KWGHYFICAY KGFHEYAKSK GVNLGSPVGL
160 170 180 190 200
DVLVDGIVPT GSGLSSSAAF VCSATIAIMA VFGHNFEKKE LAQLTCECER
210 220 230 240 250
HIGTQSGGMD QAISIMAKTG FAELIDFNPV RATDVKLPDG GSFVIAHSLA
260 270 280 290 300
ESQKAVTAAK NYNNRVVECR LASIILGVKL GMEPKEAISK VKTLSDVEGL
310 320 330 340 350
CVSFAGDRGS SDPLLAVKEY LKEEPYTAEE IEKILEEKLP SIVNNDPTSL
360 370 380 390 400
AVLNAATHFK LHQRAAHVYS EARRVHGFKD TVNSNLSDEE KLKKLGDLMN
410 420 430 440 450
ESHYSCSVLY ECSCPELEEL VQVCKENGAL GARLTGAGWG GCAVALVKEF
460 470 480 490
DVTQFIPAVK EKYYKKRVEK GVVKKEDMEL YLFASKPSSG AAIFNL
Length:496
Mass (Da):54,341
Last modified:December 1, 2000 - v2
Checksum:iF520805A5B84CB61
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Sequence conflicti274 – 30431IILGV…LCVSF → DQYLVLSSEWNQKKQYQKLR LFLMWRDYVCHS in CAA68163 (PubMed:9225860).CuratedAdd
BLAST
Sequence conflicti351 – 3511A → T in AAB94084 (PubMed:10344205).Curated
Sequence conflicti402 – 4021S → T in CAA68163 (PubMed:9225860).Curated
Sequence conflicti429 – 4291A → P in AAF15552 (Ref. 3) Curated
Sequence conflicti464 – 4652YK → HN in CAA68163 (PubMed:9225860).Curated
Sequence conflicti484 – 4841A → G in CAA68163 (PubMed:9225860).Curated
Sequence conflicti491 – 4911A → S in CAA68163 (PubMed:9225860).Curated

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X99851 mRNA. Translation: CAA68163.1.
AF024623 mRNA. Translation: AAB94084.1.
AF152851 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF15552.1.
AC020580 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG51339.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE74417.1.
AY136356 mRNA. Translation: AAM97022.1.
BT010374 mRNA. Translation: AAQ56817.1.
PIRiT51592.
RefSeqiNP_187310.1. NM_111534.3.
UniGeneiAt.21429.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.
GeneIDi819837.
GrameneiAT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.
KEGGiath:AT3G06580.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
X99851 mRNA. Translation: CAA68163.1.
AF024623 mRNA. Translation: AAB94084.1.
AF152851 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAF15552.1.
AC020580 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG51339.1.
CP002686 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE74417.1.
AY136356 mRNA. Translation: AAM97022.1.
BT010374 mRNA. Translation: AAQ56817.1.
PIRiT51592.
RefSeqiNP_187310.1. NM_111534.3.
UniGeneiAt.21429.

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9SEE5.
SMRiQ9SEE5. Positions 31-494.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi5172. 2 interactions.
STRINGi3702.AT3G06580.1.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9SEE5.
PRIDEiQ9SEE5.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.
GeneIDi819837.
GrameneiAT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.1; AT3G06580.
KEGGiath:AT3G06580.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT3G06580.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0631. Eukaryota.
COG0153. LUCA.
HOGENOMiHOG000241099.
InParanoidiQ9SEE5.
KOiK18674.
OMAiCREAGAY.
PhylomeDBiQ9SEE5.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayiUPA00214.
BioCyciARA:AT1G64440-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT3G06580-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9SEE5.

Gene expression databases

GenevisibleiQ9SEE5. AT.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di3.30.230.10. 1 hit.
3.30.70.890. 2 hits.
InterProiIPR000705. Galactokinase.
IPR019741. Galactokinase_CS.
IPR019539. GalKase_gal-bd.
IPR013750. GHMP_kinase_C_dom.
IPR006204. GHMP_kinase_N_dom.
IPR006203. GHMP_knse_ATP-bd_CS.
IPR006206. Mevalonate/galactokinase.
IPR020568. Ribosomal_S5_D2-typ_fold.
IPR014721. Ribosomal_S5_D2-typ_fold_subgr.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR10457. PTHR10457. 2 hits.
PfamiPF10509. GalKase_gal_bdg. 1 hit.
PF08544. GHMP_kinases_C. 1 hit.
PF00288. GHMP_kinases_N. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PIRSFiPIRSF000530. Galactokinase. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR00473. GALCTOKINASE.
PR00959. MEVGALKINASE.
SUPFAMiSSF54211. SSF54211. 1 hit.
SSF55060. SSF55060. 2 hits.
TIGRFAMsiTIGR00131. gal_kin. 1 hit.
PROSITEiPS00106. GALACTOKINASE. 1 hit.
PS00627. GHMP_KINASES_ATP. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Isolation of a cDNA encoding an Arabidopsis galactokinase by functional expression in yeast."
    Kaplan C.P., Tugal H.B., Baker A.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 34:497-506(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA], FUNCTION.
    Strain: cv. Landsberg erecta.
  2. "The arabinose kinase, ARA1, gene of Arabidopsis is a novel member of the galactose kinase gene family."
    Sherson S., Gy I., Medd J., Schmidt R., Dean C., Kreis M., Lecharny A., Cobbett C.
    Plant Mol. Biol. 39:1003-1012(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. "Fine structure of an Arabidopsis thaliana galactose kinase Gal1 gene."
    Gy I., Kreis M., Lecharny A.
    Plant Gene Register PGR99-171
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 3 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Salanoubat M., Lemcke K., Rieger M., Ansorge W., Unseld M., Fartmann B., Valle G., Bloecker H., Perez-Alonso M., Obermaier B., Delseny M., Boutry M., Grivell L.A., Mache R., Puigdomenech P., De Simone V., Choisne N., Artiguenave F.
    , Robert C., Brottier P., Wincker P., Cattolico L., Weissenbach J., Saurin W., Quetier F., Schaefer M., Mueller-Auer S., Gabel C., Fuchs M., Benes V., Wurmbach E., Drzonek H., Erfle H., Jordan N., Bangert S., Wiedelmann R., Kranz H., Voss H., Holland R., Brandt P., Nyakatura G., Vezzi A., D'Angelo M., Pallavicini A., Toppo S., Simionati B., Conrad A., Hornischer K., Kauer G., Loehnert T.-H., Nordsiek G., Reichelt J., Scharfe M., Schoen O., Bargues M., Terol J., Climent J., Navarro P., Collado C., Perez-Perez A., Ottenwaelder B., Duchemin D., Cooke R., Laudie M., Berger-Llauro C., Purnelle B., Masuy D., de Haan M., Maarse A.C., Alcaraz J.-P., Cottet A., Casacuberta E., Monfort A., Argiriou A., Flores M., Liguori R., Vitale D., Mannhaupt G., Haase D., Schoof H., Rudd S., Zaccaria P., Mewes H.-W., Mayer K.F.X., Kaul S., Town C.D., Koo H.L., Tallon L.J., Jenkins J., Rooney T., Rizzo M., Walts A., Utterback T., Fujii C.Y., Shea T.P., Creasy T.H., Haas B., Maiti R., Wu D., Peterson J., Van Aken S., Pai G., Militscher J., Sellers P., Gill J.E., Feldblyum T.V., Preuss D., Lin X., Nierman W.C., Salzberg S.L., White O., Venter J.C., Fraser C.M., Kaneko T., Nakamura Y., Sato S., Kato T., Asamizu E., Sasamoto S., Kimura T., Idesawa K., Kawashima K., Kishida Y., Kiyokawa C., Kohara M., Matsumoto M., Matsuno A., Muraki A., Nakayama S., Nakazaki N., Shinpo S., Takeuchi C., Wada T., Watanabe A., Yamada M., Yasuda M., Tabata S.
    Nature 408:820-822(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  6. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  7. "Identification of galacturonic acid-1-phosphate kinase, a new member of the GHMP kinase superfamily in plants, and comparison with galactose-1-phosphate kinase."
    Yang T., Bar-Peled L., Gebhart L., Lee S.G., Bar-Peled M.
    J. Biol. Chem. 284:21526-21535(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY, COFACTOR, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, MUTAGENESIS OF GLU-62; SER-206; TYR-262 AND ALA-437, TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  8. "Comparative large-scale characterisation of plant vs. mammal proteins reveals similar and idiosyncratic N-alpha acetylation features."
    Bienvenut W.V., Sumpton D., Martinez A., Lilla S., Espagne C., Meinnel T., Giglione C.
    Mol. Cell. Proteomics 11:M111.015131-M111.015131(2012) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ACETYLATION [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS] AT ALA-2, CLEAVAGE OF INITIATOR METHIONINE [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS], IDENTIFICATION BY MASS SPECTROMETRY [LARGE SCALE ANALYSIS].

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGALK1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9SEE5
Secondary accession number(s): O24021, O48936
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 1, 2000
Last sequence update: December 1, 2000
Last modified: February 17, 2016
This is version 116 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.