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Protein

Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2

Gene

MKK2

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

MEKK1, MKK1/MKK2 and MPK4 function in a signaling pathway that modulates the expression of genes responding to biotic and abiotic stresses and also plays an important role in pathogen defense by negatively regulating innate immunity. Plays a role in abiotic stress tolerance and plant disease resistance through activation of MPK4 and MPK6 by phosphorylation. Acts redundantly with MKK1.4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

ATP + a protein = ADP + a phosphoprotein.1 Publication

Enzyme regulationi

Activated in response to cold and salt stresses through serine and threonine phosphorylation by MEKK1.2 Publications

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Binding sitei99ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation1
Active sitei192Proton acceptorPROSITE-ProRule annotation1

Regions

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Nucleotide bindingi76 – 84ATPPROSITE-ProRule annotation9

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ATP binding Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • MAP kinase kinase activity Source: TAIR
  • protein serine/threonine kinase activity Source: GO_Central

GO - Biological processi

  • auxin transport Source: TAIR
  • cold acclimation Source: UniProtKB
  • defense response, incompatible interaction Source: TAIR
  • regulation of mitotic cell cycle Source: GO_Central
  • response to cold Source: UniProtKB
  • response to salt stress Source: TAIR
  • stress-activated protein kinase signaling cascade Source: GO_Central
  • xylem and phloem pattern formation Source: TAIR

Keywordsi

Molecular functionKinase, Serine/threonine-protein kinase, Transferase
Biological processImmunity, Innate immunity, Plant defense, Stress response
LigandATP-binding, Nucleotide-binding

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-ATH-110056 MAPK3 (ERK1) activation
R-ATH-2559580 Oxidative Stress Induced Senescence
R-ATH-2871796 FCERI mediated MAPK activation
R-ATH-450302 activated TAK1 mediates p38 MAPK activation
R-ATH-450321 JNK (c-Jun kinases) phosphorylation and activation mediated by activated human TAK1

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2 (EC:2.7.12.21 Publication)
Short name:
AtMAP2Kbeta
Short name:
AtMKK2
Short name:
MAP kinase kinase 2
Gene namesi
Name:MKK2
Synonyms:MAP2K, MK1
Ordered Locus Names:At4g29810
ORF Names:F27B13.50
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
Proteomesi
  • UP000006548 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

AraportiAT4G29810
TAIRilocus:2123909 AT4G29810

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cell wall Cytoskeleton Vacuole Chloroplast Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertion Graphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

No obvious developmental defects under normal growth conditions. Simultaneous knockdown of MKK1 and MKK2 results in dwarf and small plants exhibiting a seedling-lethality phenotype.3 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Mutagenesisi99K → R: Loss of interaction with MEKK1. Phosphorylated by MAPKKK5. 2 Publications1
Mutagenesisi220T → A: Loss of interaction with MEKK1. Normal phosphorylation by MAPKKK5; when associated with A-226. 4 Publications1
Mutagenesisi220T → E: Constitutively active; when associated with E-226. 3 Publications1
Mutagenesisi226T → A: Loss of interaction with MEKK1. Normal phosphorylation by MAPKKK5; when associated with A-220. 4 Publications1
Mutagenesisi226T → E: Constitutively active; when associated with E-220. 3 Publications1

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
ChainiPRO_00002458221 – 363Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 2Add BLAST363

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Modified residuei56PhosphoserineCombined sources1
Modified residuei220Phosphothreonine3 Publications1
Modified residuei226Phosphothreonine3 Publications1
Modified residuei230PhosphothreonineBy similarity1

Post-translational modificationi

Phosphorylation at Thr-220 and Thr-226 by MAP kinase kinase kinases positively regulates kinase activity. Phosphorylated by MEKK1 in response to cold (PubMed:23857079). Phosphorylated by MAPKKK5 (PubMed:27679653).5 Publications

Keywords - PTMi

Phosphoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9S7U9
PRIDEiQ9S7U9

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9S7U9

Expressioni

Gene expression databases

ExpressionAtlasiQ9S7U9 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9S7U9 AT

Interactioni

Subunit structurei

Interacts with MEKK1, MPK4 and MPK6. May form a ternary complex composed of MEKK1 and MKK1/MKK2 and MPK4. Interacts with MPK10 and MPK11. Interacts with MAPKKK5 mainly in the cytosol (PubMed:27679653).5 Publications

Binary interactionsi

Show more details

Protein-protein interaction databases

BioGridi14390, 7 interactors
IntActiQ9S7U9, 8 interactors
STRINGi3702.AT4G29810.2

Structurei

3D structure databases

ProteinModelPortaliQ9S7U9
SMRiQ9S7U9
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Domains and Repeats

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Domaini70 – 330Protein kinasePROSITE-ProRule annotationAdd BLAST261

Sequence similaritiesi

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiKOG0581 Eukaryota
ENOG410XQ5A LUCA
HOGENOMiHOG000234206
InParanoidiQ9S7U9
KOiK20603
OMAiWGTPFEQ
PhylomeDBiQ9S7U9

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR011009 Kinase-like_dom_sf
IPR000719 Prot_kinase_dom
IPR017441 Protein_kinase_ATP_BS
IPR008271 Ser/Thr_kinase_AS
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF00069 Pkinase, 1 hit
SMARTiView protein in SMART
SM00220 S_TKc, 1 hit
SUPFAMiSSF56112 SSF56112, 1 hit
PROSITEiView protein in PROSITE
PS00107 PROTEIN_KINASE_ATP, 1 hit
PS50011 PROTEIN_KINASE_DOM, 1 hit
PS00108 PROTEIN_KINASE_ST, 1 hit

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9S7U9-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MKKGGFSNNL KLAIPVAGEQ SITKFLTQSG TFKDGDLRVN KDGVRIISQL
60 70 80 90 100
EPEVLSPIKP ADDQLSLSDL DMVKVIGKGS SGVVQLVQHK WTGQFFALKV
110 120 130 140 150
IQLNIDEAIR KAIAQELKIN QSSQCPNLVT SYQSFYDNGA ISLILEYMDG
160 170 180 190 200
GSLADFLKSV KAIPDSYLSA IFRQVLQGLI YLHHDRHIIH RDLKPSNLLI
210 220 230 240 250
NHRGEVKITD FGVSTVMTNT AGLANTFVGT YNYMSPERIV GNKYGNKSDI
260 270 280 290 300
WSLGLVVLEC ATGKFPYAPP NQEETWTSVF ELMEAIVDQP PPALPSGNFS
310 320 330 340 350
PELSSFISTC LQKDPNSRSS AKELMEHPFL NKYDYSGINL ASYFTDAGSP
360
LATLGNLSGT FSV
Length:363
Mass (Da):39,848
Last modified:July 11, 2006 - v2
Checksum:i3E7EFC6D3A831D93
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9S7U9-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     26-26: L → LRKGFGSLCR

Note: May be due to intron retention. No experimental confirmation available.
Show »
Length:372
Mass (Da):40,854
Checksum:i7D682428D1CCFE22
GO

Experimental Info

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Sequence conflicti314D → E in CAA07281 (Ref. 2) Curated1
Sequence conflicti314D → E in AAC72754 (Ref. 3) Curated1

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_01978426L → LRKGFGSLCR in isoform 2. Curated1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB015313 mRNA Translation: BAA28828.1
AJ006871 mRNA Translation: CAA07281.1
AF067792 mRNA Translation: AAC72754.1
AL050352 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB43656.1
AL161575 Genomic DNA Translation: CAB79739.1
CP002687 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE85679.1
CP002687 Genomic DNA Translation: AEE85680.1
AF385688 mRNA Translation: AAK60281.1
AY078009 mRNA Translation: AAL77710.1
PIRiT08542
T51735
RefSeqiNP_001031751.1, NM_001036674.2 [Q9S7U9-2]
NP_194710.1, NM_119127.4 [Q9S7U9-1]
UniGeneiAt.1001
At.24272

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT4G29810.1; AT4G29810.1; AT4G29810 [Q9S7U9-1]
AT4G29810.2; AT4G29810.2; AT4G29810 [Q9S7U9-2]
GeneIDi829103
GrameneiAT4G29810.1; AT4G29810.1; AT4G29810 [Q9S7U9-1]
AT4G29810.2; AT4G29810.2; AT4G29810 [Q9S7U9-2]
KEGGiath:AT4G29810

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiM2K2_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9S7U9
Secondary accession number(s): O80395
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: July 11, 2006
Last sequence update: July 11, 2006
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 140 of the entry and version 2 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

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