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Q9S7N2

- TAA1_ARATH

UniProt

Q9S7N2 - TAA1_ARATH

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Protein

L-tryptophan--pyruvate aminotransferase 1

Gene

TAA1

Organism
Arabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

L-tryptophan aminotransferase involved in auxin (IAA) biosynthesis. Can convert L-tryptophan and pyruvate to indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPA) and alanine. Catalyzes the first step in IPA branch of the auxin biosynthetic pathway. Required for auxin production to initiate multiple change in growth in response to environmental and developmental cues. It is also active with phenylalanine, tyrosine, leucine, alanine, methionine and glutamine. Both TAA1 and TAR2 are required for maintaining proper auxin levels in roots, while TAA1, TAR1 and TAR2 are required for proper embryo patterning. Involved in the maintenance of the root stem cell niches and required for shade avoidance.4 Publications

Catalytic activityi

L-tryptophan + 2-oxoglutarate = (indol-3-yl)pyruvate + L-glutamate.1 Publication
L-tryptophan + pyruvate = indole-3-pyruvate + L-alanine.1 Publication

Cofactori

Enzyme regulationi

Inhibited by L-kynurenine.1 Publication

Kineticsi

  1. KM=0.29 mM for L-tryptophan1 Publication
  2. KM=4.74 mM for tyrosine1 Publication
  3. KM=9.35 mM for phenylalanine1 Publication

Vmax=25.8 µmol/min/µg enzyme with L-tryptophan as substrate1 Publication

Vmax=28 µmol/min/µg enzyme with tyrosine as substrate1 Publication

Vmax=10.6 µmol/min/µg enzyme with phenylalanine as substrate1 Publication

pH dependencei

Optimum pH is 8.8.1 Publication

Temperature dependencei

Optimum temperature is 55 degrees Celsius.1 Publication

Pathwayi

Sites

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Binding sitei58 – 581Pyridoxal phosphate
Binding sitei168 – 1681Pyridoxal phosphate
Binding sitei191 – 1911Pyridoxal phosphate
Binding sitei225 – 2251Pyridoxal phosphate

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. carbon-sulfur lyase activity Source: InterPro
  2. L-alanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  3. L-glutamine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  4. L-leucine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  5. L-methionine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  6. L-phenylalanine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  7. L-phenylalanine:pyruvate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  8. L-tryptophan:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  9. L-tryptophan:pyruvate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  10. L-tyrosine:2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  11. L-tyrosine:pyruvate aminotransferase activity Source: TAIR
  12. pyridoxal phosphate binding Source: TAIR

GO - Biological processi

  1. cotyledon development Source: TAIR
  2. cotyledon vascular tissue pattern formation Source: TAIR
  3. defense response to bacterium Source: TAIR
  4. embryo development ending in seed dormancy Source: TAIR
  5. flower development Source: TAIR
  6. gynoecium development Source: TAIR
  7. indoleacetic acid biosynthetic process Source: TAIR
  8. leaf development Source: TAIR
  9. maintenance of root meristem identity Source: TAIR
  10. phloem or xylem histogenesis Source: TAIR
  11. positive gravitropism Source: TAIR
  12. primary root development Source: TAIR
  13. response to ethylene Source: TAIR
  14. root development Source: TAIR
  15. shade avoidance Source: TAIR
  16. shoot system development Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Aminotransferase, Transferase

Keywords - Biological processi

Auxin biosynthesis

Keywords - Ligandi

Pyridoxal phosphate

Enzyme and pathway databases

BioCyciARA:AT1G70560-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G70560-MONOMER.
UniPathwayiUPA00151.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
L-tryptophan--pyruvate aminotransferase 1 (EC:2.6.1.27, EC:2.6.1.99)
Alternative name(s):
Protein CYTOKININ INDUCED ROOT CURLING 1
Protein SHADE AVOIDANCE 3
Protein TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE 2
Protein TRYPTOPHAN AMINOTRANSFERASE OF ARABIDOPSIS 1
Protein WEAK ETHYLENE INSENSITIVE 8
Tryptophan transaminase
Gene namesi
Name:TAA1
Synonyms:CKRC1, SAV3, TIR2, WEI8
Ordered Locus Names:At1g70560
ORF Names:F24J13.13, F5A18.26
OrganismiArabidopsis thaliana (Mouse-ear cress)
Taxonomic identifieri3702 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaViridiplantaeStreptophytaEmbryophytaTracheophytaSpermatophytaMagnoliophytaeudicotyledonsGunneridaePentapetalaerosidsmalvidsBrassicalesBrassicaceaeCamelineaeArabidopsis
ProteomesiUP000006548: Chromosome 1

Organism-specific databases

TAIRiAT1G70560.

Subcellular locationi

Cytoplasm 1 Publication

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. cytoplasm Source: TAIR
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Cytoplasm

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

No visible phenotype under normal growth condition, but exhibits reduced levels of auxin (IAA), reduced auxin response, reduced sensitivity to ethylene and shorter hypocotyls and petioles but larger leaf area when grown in simulated shade. Defective in root gravitropic response and shows an increased resistance to cytokinin in primary root growth.4 Publications

Mutagenesis

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Mutagenesisi166 – 1661P → S in wei8-2; loss of activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi171 – 1711G → E in tir2-1; loss of activity. 1 Publication
Mutagenesisi217 – 2171K → A: Loss of activity. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi217 – 2171K → G or R: Reduces growth rate under shade condition. 2 Publications
Mutagenesisi250 – 2501G → S in sav3-3; reduces growth rate under shade condition. 1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Chaini1 – 391391L-tryptophan--pyruvate aminotransferase 1PRO_0000401375Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Modified residuei217 – 2171N6-(pyridoxal phosphate)lysineSequence Analysis

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9S7N2.
PRIDEiQ9S7N2.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed at the leaf margin and in the vasculature of emerging young leaves. Expressed in the quiescent center and in the vasculature of root tips. Detected in the shoot apical meristem, stems, sepals, stamen filaments, the shoot and root junction, the stigma and the base of the silique.3 Publications

Developmental stagei

In the heart stage embryo, expressed in the developing vasculature and the apical epidermal layer. At the torpedo stage expressed in the developing vasculature of the root, hypocotyl and cotyledons, as well as in the L1 layer of the presumptive shoot apical meristem and the adaxial epidermis of the developing cotyledons. In flowers, the expression is first restricted to the central outer layers of flower primordia, but later expands toward the base of gynoecia, becoming limited to two cell files along the meristematic medial ridge.2 Publications

Inductioni

Up-regulated by trans-zeatin, ethylene and high temperature. Down-regulated by auxin and shade treatment.3 Publications

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ9S7N2.

Interactioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi3702.AT1G70560.1-P.

Structurei

Secondary structure

1
391
Legend: HelixTurnBeta strand
Show more details
Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Turni20 – 223Combined sources
Helixi33 – 353Combined sources
Helixi36 – 416Combined sources
Helixi43 – 453Combined sources
Beta strandi48 – 503Combined sources
Turni52 – 554Combined sources
Beta strandi64 – 663Combined sources
Helixi71 – 8414Combined sources
Beta strandi90 – 989Combined sources
Helixi99 – 11315Combined sources
Beta strandi115 – 12410Combined sources
Helixi131 – 1377Combined sources
Beta strandi144 – 1507Combined sources
Beta strandi159 – 1668Combined sources
Turni168 – 1703Combined sources
Beta strandi187 – 1915Combined sources
Turni197 – 1993Combined sources
Beta strandi209 – 2146Combined sources
Helixi215 – 2195Combined sources
Helixi222 – 2243Combined sources
Beta strandi226 – 2316Combined sources
Helixi234 – 24815Combined sources
Helixi253 – 26917Combined sources
Turni275 – 2773Combined sources
Helixi279 – 29921Combined sources
Beta strandi302 – 3054Combined sources
Beta strandi312 – 3143Combined sources
Turni315 – 3184Combined sources
Beta strandi319 – 3213Combined sources
Beta strandi326 – 33510Combined sources
Helixi338 – 3447Combined sources
Helixi352 – 3554Combined sources
Beta strandi361 – 3666Combined sources
Helixi370 – 38112Combined sources

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
EntryMethodResolution (Å)ChainPositionsPDBsum
3BWNX-ray2.25A/B/C/D/E/F1-391[»]
3BWOX-ray2.40A/B/C/D/E/F1-391[»]
ProteinModelPortaliQ9S7N2.
SMRiQ9S7N2. Positions 17-385.
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTraceiQ9S7N2.

Family & Domainsi

Region

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Regioni100 – 1012Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Regioni191 – 1944Pyridoxal phosphate binding
Regioni214 – 2174Pyridoxal phosphate binding

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the alliinase family.Curated

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG300354.
HOGENOMiHOG000237549.
InParanoidiQ9S7N2.
KOiK16903.
OMAiCDLMSYF.
PhylomeDBiQ9S7N2.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di2.10.25.30. 1 hit.
3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProiIPR006948. Alliinase_C.
IPR006947. EGF_alliinase.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view]
PfamiPF04864. Alliinase_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
SUPFAMiSSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Q9S7N2-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVKLENSRKP EKISNKNIPM SDFVVNLDHG DPTAYEEYWR KMGDRCTVTI
60 70 80 90 100
RGCDLMSYFS DMTNLCWFLE PELEDAIKDL HGVVGNAATE DRYIVVGTGS
110 120 130 140 150
TQLCQAAVHA LSSLARSQPV SVVAAAPFYS TYVEETTYVR SGMYKWEGDA
160 170 180 190 200
WGFDKKGPYI ELVTSPNNPD GTIRETVVNR PDDDEAKVIH DFAYYWPHYT
210 220 230 240 250
PITRRQDHDI MLFTFSKITG HAGSRIGWAL VKDKEVAKKM VEYIIVNSIG
260 270 280 290 300
VSKESQVRTA KILNVLKETC KSESESENFF KYGREMMKNR WEKLREVVKE
310 320 330 340 350
SDAFTLPKYP EAFCNYFGKS LESYPAFAWL GTKEETDLVS ELRRHKVMSR
360 370 380 390
AGERCGSDKK HVRVSMLSRE DVFNVFLERL ANMKLIKSID L
Length:391
Mass (Da):44,801
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i7038D6C93E122614
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC010796 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG52476.1.
AC011663 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG52348.1.
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE35079.1.
AK117208 mRNA. Translation: BAC41884.1.
BT005339 mRNA. Translation: AAO63403.1.
PIRiF96729.
RefSeqiNP_177213.1. NM_105724.2.
UniGeneiAt.27817.

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsiAT1G70560.1; AT1G70560.1; AT1G70560.
GeneIDi843393.
KEGGiath:AT1G70560.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AC010796 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG52476.1 .
AC011663 Genomic DNA. Translation: AAG52348.1 .
CP002684 Genomic DNA. Translation: AEE35079.1 .
AK117208 mRNA. Translation: BAC41884.1 .
BT005339 mRNA. Translation: AAO63403.1 .
PIRi F96729.
RefSeqi NP_177213.1. NM_105724.2.
UniGenei At.27817.

3D structure databases

Select the link destinations:
PDBei
RCSB PDBi
PDBji
Links Updated
Entry Method Resolution (Å) Chain Positions PDBsum
3BWN X-ray 2.25 A/B/C/D/E/F 1-391 [» ]
3BWO X-ray 2.40 A/B/C/D/E/F 1-391 [» ]
ProteinModelPortali Q9S7N2.
SMRi Q9S7N2. Positions 17-385.
ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi 3702.AT1G70560.1-P.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q9S7N2.
PRIDEi Q9S7N2.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

EnsemblPlantsi AT1G70560.1 ; AT1G70560.1 ; AT1G70560 .
GeneIDi 843393.
KEGGi ath:AT1G70560.

Organism-specific databases

TAIRi AT1G70560.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG300354.
HOGENOMi HOG000237549.
InParanoidi Q9S7N2.
KOi K16903.
OMAi CDLMSYF.
PhylomeDBi Q9S7N2.

Enzyme and pathway databases

UniPathwayi UPA00151 .
BioCyci ARA:AT1G70560-MONOMER.
MetaCyc:AT1G70560-MONOMER.

Miscellaneous databases

EvolutionaryTracei Q9S7N2.

Gene expression databases

Genevestigatori Q9S7N2.

Family and domain databases

Gene3Di 2.10.25.30. 1 hit.
3.40.640.10. 1 hit.
3.90.1150.10. 1 hit.
InterProi IPR006948. Alliinase_C.
IPR006947. EGF_alliinase.
IPR015424. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase.
IPR015421. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub1.
IPR015422. PyrdxlP-dep_Trfase_major_sub2.
[Graphical view ]
Pfami PF04864. Alliinase_C. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
SUPFAMi SSF53383. SSF53383. 1 hit.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

« Hide 'large scale' publications
  1. "Sequence and analysis of chromosome 1 of the plant Arabidopsis thaliana."
    Theologis A., Ecker J.R., Palm C.J., Federspiel N.A., Kaul S., White O., Alonso J., Altafi H., Araujo R., Bowman C.L., Brooks S.Y., Buehler E., Chan A., Chao Q., Chen H., Cheuk R.F., Chin C.W., Chung M.K.
    , Conn L., Conway A.B., Conway A.R., Creasy T.H., Dewar K., Dunn P., Etgu P., Feldblyum T.V., Feng J.-D., Fong B., Fujii C.Y., Gill J.E., Goldsmith A.D., Haas B., Hansen N.F., Hughes B., Huizar L., Hunter J.L., Jenkins J., Johnson-Hopson C., Khan S., Khaykin E., Kim C.J., Koo H.L., Kremenetskaia I., Kurtz D.B., Kwan A., Lam B., Langin-Hooper S., Lee A., Lee J.M., Lenz C.A., Li J.H., Li Y.-P., Lin X., Liu S.X., Liu Z.A., Luros J.S., Maiti R., Marziali A., Militscher J., Miranda M., Nguyen M., Nierman W.C., Osborne B.I., Pai G., Peterson J., Pham P.K., Rizzo M., Rooney T., Rowley D., Sakano H., Salzberg S.L., Schwartz J.R., Shinn P., Southwick A.M., Sun H., Tallon L.J., Tambunga G., Toriumi M.J., Town C.D., Utterback T., Van Aken S., Vaysberg M., Vysotskaia V.S., Walker M., Wu D., Yu G., Fraser C.M., Venter J.C., Davis R.W.
    Nature 408:816-820(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE GENOMIC DNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  2. The Arabidopsis Information Resource (TAIR)
    Submitted (APR-2011) to the EMBL/GenBank/DDBJ databases
    Cited for: GENOME REANNOTATION.
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  3. Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  4. "Empirical analysis of transcriptional activity in the Arabidopsis genome."
    Yamada K., Lim J., Dale J.M., Chen H., Shinn P., Palm C.J., Southwick A.M., Wu H.C., Kim C.J., Nguyen M., Pham P.K., Cheuk R.F., Karlin-Newmann G., Liu S.X., Lam B., Sakano H., Wu T., Yu G.
    , Miranda M., Quach H.L., Tripp M., Chang C.H., Lee J.M., Toriumi M.J., Chan M.M., Tang C.C., Onodera C.S., Deng J.M., Akiyama K., Ansari Y., Arakawa T., Banh J., Banno F., Bowser L., Brooks S.Y., Carninci P., Chao Q., Choy N., Enju A., Goldsmith A.D., Gurjal M., Hansen N.F., Hayashizaki Y., Johnson-Hopson C., Hsuan V.W., Iida K., Karnes M., Khan S., Koesema E., Ishida J., Jiang P.X., Jones T., Kawai J., Kamiya A., Meyers C., Nakajima M., Narusaka M., Seki M., Sakurai T., Satou M., Tamse R., Vaysberg M., Wallender E.K., Wong C., Yamamura Y., Yuan S., Shinozaki K., Davis R.W., Theologis A., Ecker J.R.
    Science 302:842-846(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [LARGE SCALE MRNA].
    Strain: cv. Columbia.
  5. "TAA1-mediated auxin biosynthesis is essential for hormone crosstalk and plant development."
    Stepanova A.N., Robertson-Hoyt J., Yun J., Benavente L.M., Xie D.Y., Dolezal K., Schlereth A., Juergens G., Alonso J.M.
    Cell 133:177-191(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, MUTAGENESIS OF PRO-166 AND LYS-217.
  6. "Rapid synthesis of auxin via a new tryptophan-dependent pathway is required for shade avoidance in plants."
    Tao Y., Ferrer J.L., Ljung K., Pojer F., Hong F., Long J.A., Li L., Moreno J.E., Bowman M.E., Ivans L.J., Cheng Y., Lim J., Zhao Y., Ballare C.L., Sandberg G., Noel J.P., Chory J.
    Cell 133:164-176(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: X-RAY CRYSTALLOGRAPHY (2.25 ANGSTROMS) IN COMPLEX WITH PYRIDOXAMINE PHOSPHATE, FUNCTION, BIOPHYSICOCHEMICAL PROPERTIES, SUBCELLULAR LOCATION, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, INDUCTION BY SHADE, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE, MUTAGENESIS OF LYS-217 AND GLY-250.
  7. "The TRANSPORT INHIBITOR RESPONSE2 gene is required for auxin synthesis and diverse aspects of plant development."
    Yamada M., Greenham K., Prigge M.J., Jensen P.J., Estelle M.
    Plant Physiol. 151:168-179(2009) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: FUNCTION, MUTAGENESIS OF GLY-171, TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION BY AUXIN AND HEAT, DEVELOPMENTAL STAGE, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  8. "A small-molecule screen identifies L-kynurenine as a competitive inhibitor of TAA1/TAR activity in ethylene-directed auxin biosynthesis and root growth in Arabidopsis."
    He W., Brumos J., Li H., Ji Y., Ke M., Gong X., Zeng Q., Li W., Zhang X., An F., Wen X., Li P., Chu J., Sun X., Yan C., Yan N., Xie D.Y., Raikhel N.
    , Yang Z., Stepanova A.N., Alonso J.M., Guo H.
    Plant Cell 23:3944-3960(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: ENZYME REGULATION.
  9. "Functional characterization of the CKRC1/TAA1 gene and dissection of hormonal actions in the Arabidopsis root."
    Zhou Z.Y., Zhang C.G., Wu L., Zhang C.G., Chai J., Wang M., Jha A., Jia P.F., Cui S.J., Yang M., Chen R., Guo G.Q.
    Plant J. 66:516-527(2011) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY, INDUCTION BY ETHYLENE AND CYTOKININ, DISRUPTION PHENOTYPE.
  10. Cited for: FUNCTION, CATALYTIC ACTIVITY.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiTAA1_ARATH
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9S7N2
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: November 30, 2010
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 26, 2014
This is version 84 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programPlant Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

3D-structure, Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Arabidopsis thaliana
    Arabidopsis thaliana: entries and gene names
  2. PATHWAY comments
    Index of metabolic and biosynthesis pathways
  3. PDB cross-references
    Index of Protein Data Bank (PDB) cross-references
  4. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3