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Protein

Apelin

Gene

Apln

Organism
Mus musculus (Mouse)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR). Drives internalization of APLNR (By similarity). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (By similarity). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (PubMed:10525157). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (PubMed:28890073). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (By similarity). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (PubMed:11359874).By similarity3 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Hormone
Biological processAngiogenesis, Gastrulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-MMU-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-MMU-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Apln
Synonyms:Apel
OrganismiMus musculus (Mouse)
Taxonomic identifieri10090 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeMusMus
Proteomesi
  • UP000000589 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

MGIiMGI:1353624 Apln

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Disruption phenotypei

Mice heart of embryos show increased coronary vessel growth at 13.5 dpc and 15.5 dpc (PubMed:28890073). Double knockout mice of APELA and APLN genes exhibit the same penetrance, embryonic lethality and cardiovascular malformations as single APELA knockout mice (PubMed:28854362).1 Publication

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 22Sequence analysisAdd BLAST22
PropeptideiPRO_000000176423 – 41By similarityAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_000000176542 – 77Apelin-36By similarityAdd BLAST36
PeptideiPRO_000000176647 – 77Apelin-31By similarityAdd BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000000176750 – 77Apelin-28By similarityAdd BLAST28
PeptideiPRO_000000176865 – 77Apelin-13By similarityAdd BLAST13

Post-translational modificationi

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9R0R4
PRIDEiQ9R0R4

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in extraembryonic visceral endoderm and in the primitive streak at 6.5 and 7.5 dpc (PubMed:28854362). Expressed in the anterior visceral yolk sac at 8.25 dpc (PubMed:28854362). Expressed weakly in the embryonic heart at 11.5 dpc (PubMed:26611206). Expressed in the adult heart (PubMed:26611206). Expressed in endothelial cells and cardiomyocytes and weakly expressed in fibroblasts (PubMed:26611206).2 Publications

Inductioni

Not up-regulated following myocardial infarction (MI) (at protein level) (PubMed:26611206).1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSMUSG00000037010
CleanExiMM_APLN
ExpressionAtlasiQ9R0R4 baseline and differential
GenevisibleiQ9R0R4 MM

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10090.ENSMUSP00000046012

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST Eukaryota
ENOG410ZHPP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020
HOGENOMiHOG000033992
HOVERGENiHBG018249
InParanoidiQ9R0R4
KOiK05225
OMAiPMASTEH
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6
PhylomeDBiQ9R0R4
TreeFamiTF339660

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR026155 Apelin
PANTHERiPTHR15953 PTHR15953, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF15360 Apelin, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9R0R4-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNLRLCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGVPLMLPPD GTGLEEGSMR YLVKPRTSRT
60 70
GPGAWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF
Length:77
Mass (Da):8,658
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:iD71E0D58E47D2376
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023494 mRNA Translation: BAA84976.1
BC020015 mRNA Translation: AAH20015.1
CCDSiCCDS40958.1
RefSeqiNP_038940.1, NM_013912.4
UniGeneiMm.29262

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSMUST00000039026; ENSMUSP00000046012; ENSMUSG00000037010
GeneIDi30878
KEGGimmu:30878
UCSCiuc009tbu.1 mouse

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPEL_MOUSE
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9R0R4
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 110 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. MGD cross-references
    Mouse Genome Database (MGD) cross-references in UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

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