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Protein

Apelin

Gene

Apln

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endogenous ligand for the apelin receptor (APLNR) (PubMed:11336787, PubMed:11359874, PubMed:26611206). Drives internalization of the apelin receptor (PubMed:11359874). Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APLNR (PubMed:11336787). Hormone involved in the regulation of cardiac precursor cell movements during gastrulation and heart morphogenesis (By similarity). Has an inhibitory effect on cytokine production in response to T-cell receptor/CD3 cross-linking; the oral intake of apelin in the colostrum and the milk might therefore modulate immune responses in neonates (By similarity). Plays a role in early coronary blood vessels formation (By similarity). Mediates myocardial contractility in an ERK1/2-dependent manner (PubMed:26611206). May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing vasopressin release and drinking behavior (PubMed:10617103, PubMed:11359874).By similarity4 Publications

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  • angiogenesis Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • apelin receptor signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  • coronary vasculature development Source: UniProtKB
  • drinking behavior Source: UniProtKB
  • feeding behavior Source: RGD
  • gastrulation Source: UniProtKB-KW
  • negative regulation of blood pressure Source: RGD
  • negative regulation of fibroblast growth factor receptor signaling pathway Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of gene expression Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of vascular smooth muscle cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
  • negative regulation of vasoconstriction Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of blood vessel diameter Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of corticotropin secretion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of G-protein coupled receptor internalization Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of heart contraction Source: UniProtKB
  • positive regulation of heat generation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of phosphorylation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of pri-miRNA transcription by RNA polymerase II Source: Ensembl
  • positive regulation of vascular endothelial cell proliferation Source: Ensembl
  • regulation of body fluid levels Source: RGD
  • regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange Source: RGD
  • regulation of the force of heart contraction Source: RGD

Keywordsi

Molecular functionDevelopmental protein, Hormone
Biological processAngiogenesis, Gastrulation

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-375276 Peptide ligand-binding receptors
R-RNO-418594 G alpha (i) signalling events

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Apln
Synonyms:Apel
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

RGDi620672 Apln

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry databases

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3232686

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 22Sequence analysisAdd BLAST22
PropeptideiPRO_000000176923 – 41By similarityAdd BLAST19
PeptideiPRO_000000177042 – 77Apelin-36Add BLAST36
PeptideiPRO_000000177147 – 77Apelin-31By similarityAdd BLAST31
PeptideiPRO_000000177250 – 77Apelin-28By similarityAdd BLAST28
PeptideiPRO_000000177365 – 77Apelin-13Add BLAST13

Post-translational modificationi

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the peptide precursor.By similarity

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9R0R3

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Expressed in the lung, testis, ovary, uterus and mammary gland (PubMed:11336787). Expressed in neurons in the thalamic paraventricular and hypothalamic supraoptic nuclei (PubMed:11359874). The lung, testis and uterus mainly contain a large form that looks like apelin-36, whereas the mammary gland seems to contain 2 forms of apelin, a large form close to apelin-36 and a small form close to apelin-13 (at protein level) (PubMed:11336787). Widely expressed in the adult, with highest levels in the mammary gland of lactating animals, very high levels in the lung, intermediate levels in the spinal cord, ovary, adipose tissue, brain (neuronal cell bodies and fibers in the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei), heart and testis, and lowest levels in the pituitary gland, kidney, stomach, uterus and pancreas (PubMed:10525157, PubMed:10617103, PubMed:11336787).4 Publications

Developmental stagei

Highly expressed in neonatal tissues. In the adult, reaches a maximal level around parturition.

Inductioni

During pregnancy and lactation (PubMed:10525157).1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000003984
GenevisibleiQ9R0R3 RN

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: UniProtKB

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000005331

Chemistry databases

BindingDBiQ9R0R3

Structurei

3D structure databases

SMRiQ9R0R3
ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST Eukaryota
ENOG410ZHPP LUCA
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020
HOGENOMiHOG000033992
HOVERGENiHBG018249
InParanoidiQ9R0R3
KOiK05225
OMAiPMASTEH
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6
PhylomeDBiQ9R0R3
TreeFamiTF339660

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR026155 Apelin
PANTHERiPTHR15953 PTHR15953, 1 hit
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF15360 Apelin, 1 hit

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9R0R3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNLSFCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGVPLMLPPD GKGLEEGNMR YLVKPRTSRT
60 70
GPGAWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF
Length:77
Mass (Da):8,677
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i944D52154F824EC4
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023495 mRNA Translation: BAA84977.1
AF179679 mRNA Translation: AAF25814.1
BC080843 mRNA Translation: AAH80843.1
RefSeqiNP_113800.1, NM_031612.3
UniGeneiRn.22847

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000005331; ENSRNOP00000005331; ENSRNOG00000003984
GeneIDi58812
KEGGirno:58812
UCSCiRGD:620672 rat

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPEL_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9R0R3
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: May 23, 2018
This is version 100 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

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