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Protein

Apelin

Gene

Apln

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Endogenous ligand for APJ. Apelin-36 dissociates more hardly than (pyroglu)apelin-13 from APJ. The oral intake in the colostrum and the milk could have a role in the modulation of the immune responses in neonates. May also have a role in the central control of body fluid homeostasis by influencing AVP release and drinking behavior.1 Publication

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: RGD

GO - Biological processi

  • drinking behavior Source: RGD
  • feeding behavior Source: RGD
  • negative regulation of blood pressure Source: RGD
  • negative regulation of vasoconstriction Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of cell proliferation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of corticotropin-releasing hormone secretion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of corticotropin secretion Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of heat generation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of phosphorylation Source: RGD
  • positive regulation of vasodilation Source: RGD
  • regulation of body fluid levels Source: RGD
  • regulation of respiratory gaseous exchange Source: RGD
  • regulation of the force of heart contraction Source: RGD
  • signal transduction Source: InterPro
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-RNO-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Apelin
Alternative name(s):
APJ endogenous ligand
Cleaved into the following 4 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Apln
Synonyms:Apel
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome X

Organism-specific databases

RGDi620672. Apln.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  • extracellular space Source: RGD
  • perinuclear region of cytoplasm Source: RGD
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

Pathology & Biotechi

Chemistry

ChEMBLiCHEMBL3232686.

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 2222Sequence analysisAdd
BLAST
Propeptidei23 – 4119By similarityPRO_0000001769Add
BLAST
Peptidei42 – 7736Apelin-36PRO_0000001770Add
BLAST
Peptidei47 – 7731Apelin-31By similarityPRO_0000001771Add
BLAST
Peptidei50 – 7728Apelin-28By similarityPRO_0000001772Add
BLAST
Peptidei65 – 7713Apelin-13PRO_0000001773Add
BLAST

Post-translational modificationi

Several active peptides may be produced by proteolytic processing of the precursor.

Keywords - PTMi

Cleavage on pair of basic residues

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9R0R3.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Widely expressed in the adult, with highest levels in the mammary gland of lactating rats, very high levels in the lung, intermediate levels in the spinal cord, ovary, adipose tissue, brain (neuronal cell bodies and fibers in the supraoptic and the paraventricular nuclei), heart and testis, and lowest levels in the pituitary gland, kidney, stomach, uterus and pancreas. The lung, testis and uterus mainly contain a large form that looks like apelin-36, whereas the mammary gland seems to contain 2 forms of apelin, a large form close to apelin-36 and a small form close to apelin-13.

Developmental stagei

Highly expressed in neonatal tissues. In the adult, reaches a maximal level around parturition.

Inductioni

During pregnancy and lactation.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000003984.
GenevisibleiQ9R0R3. RN.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

  • apelin receptor binding Source: RGD

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000005331.

Chemistry

BindingDBiQ9R0R3.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the apelin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST. Eukaryota.
ENOG410ZHPP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020.
HOGENOMiHOG000033992.
HOVERGENiHBG018249.
InParanoidiQ9R0R3.
KOiK05225.
OMAiMRYLVKP.
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6.
PhylomeDBiQ9R0R3.
TreeFamiTF339660.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR026155. Apelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR15953. PTHR15953. 1 hit.
PfamiPF15360. Apelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]

Sequencei

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

Q9R0R3-1 [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MNLSFCVQAL LLLWLSLTAV CGVPLMLPPD GKGLEEGNMR YLVKPRTSRT
60 70
GPGAWQGGRR KFRRQRPRLS HKGPMPF
Length:77
Mass (Da):8,677
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i944D52154F824EC4
GO

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023495 mRNA. Translation: BAA84977.1.
AF179679 mRNA. Translation: AAF25814.1.
BC080843 mRNA. Translation: AAH80843.1.
RefSeqiNP_113800.1. NM_031612.3.
UniGeneiRn.22847.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000005331; ENSRNOP00000005331; ENSRNOG00000003984.
GeneIDi58812.
KEGGirno:58812.
UCSCiRGD:620672. rat.

Cross-referencesi

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB023495 mRNA. Translation: BAA84977.1.
AF179679 mRNA. Translation: AAF25814.1.
BC080843 mRNA. Translation: AAH80843.1.
RefSeqiNP_113800.1. NM_031612.3.
UniGeneiRn.22847.

3D structure databases

ModBaseiSearch...
MobiDBiSearch...

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000005331.

Chemistry

BindingDBiQ9R0R3.
ChEMBLiCHEMBL3232686.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9R0R3.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology KnowledgebaseSearch...

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000005331; ENSRNOP00000005331; ENSRNOG00000003984.
GeneIDi58812.
KEGGirno:58812.
UCSCiRGD:620672. rat.

Organism-specific databases

CTDi8862.
RGDi620672. Apln.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410J5ST. Eukaryota.
ENOG410ZHPP. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000014020.
HOGENOMiHOG000033992.
HOVERGENiHBG018249.
InParanoidiQ9R0R3.
KOiK05225.
OMAiMRYLVKP.
OrthoDBiEOG091G19F6.
PhylomeDBiQ9R0R3.
TreeFamiTF339660.

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-375276. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
R-RNO-418594. G alpha (i) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

PROiQ9R0R3.

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000003984.
GenevisibleiQ9R0R3. RN.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR026155. Apelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR15953. PTHR15953. 1 hit.
PfamiPF15360. Apelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
ProtoNetiSearch...

Entry informationi

Entry nameiAPEL_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9R0R3
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: January 23, 2002
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: September 7, 2016
This is version 88 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

Similar proteinsi

Links to similar proteins from the UniProt Reference Clusters (UniRef) at 100%, 90% and 50% sequence identity:
100%UniRef100 combines identical sequences and sub-fragments with 11 or more residues from any organism into one UniRef entry.
90%UniRef90 is built by clustering UniRef100 sequences that have at least 90% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence (a.k.a seed sequence).
50%UniRef50 is built by clustering UniRef90 seed sequences that have at least 50% sequence identity to, and 80% overlap with, the longest sequence in the cluster.