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Protein

Appetite-regulating hormone

Gene

Ghrl

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed-Annotation score: Annotation score: 5 out of 5-Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility.

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ghrelin receptor binding Source: RGD
  • G-protein coupled receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: RGD
  • protein tyrosine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

Keywordsi

Molecular functionHormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiR-RNO-416476. G alpha (q) signalling events.
R-RNO-422085. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Appetite-regulating hormone
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone secretagogue
Growth hormone-releasing peptide
Motilin-related peptide
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Ghrl
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaMyomorphaMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
Proteomesi
  • UP000002494 Componenti: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

RGDi632283. Ghrl.

Subcellular locationi

Extracellular region or secreted Cytosol Plasma membrane Cytoskeleton Lysosome Endosome Peroxisome ER Golgi apparatus Nucleus Mitochondrion Manual annotation Automatic computational assertionGraphics by Christian Stolte; Source: COMPARTMENTS

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Signal peptidei1 – 232 PublicationsAdd BLAST23
PeptideiPRO_000001920924 – 51GhrelinAdd BLAST28
PropeptideiPRO_000001921052 – 75Removed in mature form1 PublicationAdd BLAST24
PeptideiPRO_000004514676 – 98Obestatin-23Add BLAST23
PeptideiPRO_000004514786 – 98Obestatin-13CuratedAdd BLAST13
PropeptideiPRO_000004514899 – 117Removed in mature formAdd BLAST19

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Lipidationi26O-octanoyl serine2 Publications1
Modified residuei98Leucine amide1 Publication1

Post-translational modificationi

O-octanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The replacement of Ser-26 by aromatic tryptophan preserves ghrelin activity (PubMed:10604470, PubMed:10801861).2 Publications
Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9QYH7.

PTM databases

iPTMnetiQ9QYH7.
PhosphoSitePlusiQ9QYH7.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ghrelin is broadly expressed with higher expression in the stomach. Very low levels are detected in the hypothalamus, heart, lung, pancreas, intestine and adipose tissue. Obestatin is most highly expressed in jejunum, and also found in duodenum, stomach, pituitary, ileum, liver, hypothalamus and heart. Expressed in low levels in pancreas, cerebellum, cerebrum, kidney, testis, ovary colon and lung.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

BgeeiENSRNOG00000010349.
GenevisibleiQ9QYH7. RN.

Interactioni

GO - Molecular functioni

  • ghrelin receptor binding Source: RGD
  • G-protein coupled receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  • growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  • hormone activity Source: RGD

Protein-protein interaction databases

STRINGi10116.ENSRNOP00000014103.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the motilin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiENOG410IZYV. Eukaryota.
ENOG410ZG1B. LUCA.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064.
HOGENOMiHOG000236303.
HOVERGENiHBG018522.
InParanoidiQ9QYH7.
KOiK05254.
OMAiEIQFNAP.
OrthoDBiEOG091G0YG0.
PhylomeDBiQ9QYH7.
TreeFamiTF336219.

Family and domain databases

InterProiView protein in InterPro
IPR006737. Motilin_assoc.
IPR006738. Motilin_ghrelin.
IPR005441. Preproghrelin.
PANTHERiPTHR14122. PTHR14122. 1 hit.
PfamiView protein in Pfam
PF04643. Motilin_assoc. 1 hit.
PF04644. Motilin_ghrelin. 1 hit.
PRINTSiPR01624. GHRELIN.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. AlignAdd to basket

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9QYH7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: Ghrelin

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVSSATICSL LLLSMLWMDM AMAGSSFLSP EHQKAQQRKE SKKPPAKLQP
60 70 80 90 100
RALEGWLHPE DRGQAEEAEE ELEIRFNAPF DVGIKLSGAQ YQQHGRALGK
110
FLQDILWEEV KEAPANK
Length:117
Mass (Da):13,176
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i8857546FE51A7691
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9QYH7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to basket
Also known as: des-Gln14-ghrelin

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     37-37: Missing.

Show »
Length:116
Mass (Da):13,048
Checksum:i88544ECA032C24F2
GO

Mass spectrometryi

Isoform 1 : Molecular mass is 3314.9±0.7 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Isoform 2 : Molecular mass is 3187.1±0.6 Da from positions 24 - 50. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2516.3 Da from positions 76 - 98. 1 Publication

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)DescriptionActionsGraphical viewLength
Alternative sequenceiVSP_00324837Missing in isoform 2. 1 Publication1

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029433 mRNA. Translation: BAA89370.1.
AB035699 mRNA. Translation: BAB11956.1.
PIRiB59316.
RefSeqiNP_067701.1. NM_021669.2. [Q9QYH7-1]
UniGeneiRn.42103.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000014103; ENSRNOP00000014103; ENSRNOG00000010349. [Q9QYH7-1]
GeneIDi59301.
KEGGirno:59301.
UCSCiRGD:632283. rat. [Q9QYH7-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Similar proteinsi

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGHRL_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9QYH7
Secondary accession number(s): Q9ET69
Entry historyiIntegrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 13, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 22, 2017
This is version 131 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. See complete history.
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Caution

PubMed:16284174 reports obestatin as ligand of GPR39. However, PubMed:17289961 and others are unable to reproduce these results. It also seems to be unclear whether obestatin has opposite effects on food intake compared with ghrelin.Curated

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families