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Q9QYH7

- GHRL_RAT

UniProt

Q9QYH7 - GHRL_RAT

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Protein

Appetite-regulating hormone

Gene

Ghrl

Organism
Rattus norvegicus (Rat)
Status
Reviewed - Annotation score: 5 out of 5- Experimental evidence at protein leveli

Functioni

Ghrelin is the ligand for growth hormone secretagogue receptor type 1 (GHSR). Induces the release of growth hormone from the pituitary. Has an appetite-stimulating effect, induces adiposity and stimulates gastric acid secretion. Involved in growth regulation.
Obestatin may be the ligand for GPR39. May have an appetite-reducing effect resulting in decreased food intake. May reduce gastric emptying activity and jejunal motility.

GO - Molecular functioni

  1. ghrelin receptor binding Source: RGD
  2. G-protein coupled receptor binding Source: UniProtKB
  3. growth hormone-releasing hormone activity Source: UniProtKB
  4. hormone activity Source: RGD
  5. protein tyrosine kinase activator activity Source: UniProtKB

GO - Biological processi

  1. actin polymerization or depolymerization Source: UniProtKB
  2. activation of MAPK activity Source: UniProtKB
  3. adult feeding behavior Source: HGNC
  4. decidualization Source: UniProtKB
  5. dendrite development Source: Ensembl
  6. gastric acid secretion Source: UniProtKB
  7. G-protein coupled receptor signaling pathway Source: UniProtKB
  8. negative regulation of apoptotic process Source: UniProtKB
  9. negative regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, REM sleep Source: Ensembl
  10. negative regulation of endothelial cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  11. negative regulation of inflammatory response Source: UniProtKB
  12. negative regulation of insulin secretion Source: MGI
  13. negative regulation of interleukin-1 beta production Source: UniProtKB
  14. negative regulation of interleukin-6 biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  15. negative regulation of locomotion Source: Ensembl
  16. negative regulation of tumor necrosis factor biosynthetic process Source: UniProtKB
  17. positive regulation of appetite Source: HGNC
  18. positive regulation of circadian sleep/wake cycle, non-REM sleep Source: Ensembl
  19. positive regulation of corticotropin secretion Source: Ensembl
  20. positive regulation of cortisol secretion Source: Ensembl
  21. positive regulation of cytosolic calcium ion concentration Source: UniProtKB
  22. positive regulation of growth hormone secretion Source: Ensembl
  23. positive regulation of insulin secretion Source: UniProtKB
  24. positive regulation of response to food Source: RGD
  25. positive regulation of synapse assembly Source: Ensembl
  26. regulation of cell proliferation Source: UniProtKB
  27. regulation of excitatory postsynaptic membrane potential Source: Ensembl
  28. regulation of response to food Source: RGD
  29. response to estrogen Source: UniProtKB
  30. response to hormone Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Molecular functioni

Hormone

Enzyme and pathway databases

ReactomeiREACT_250028. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_250291. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
REACT_263374. G alpha (q) signalling events.

Names & Taxonomyi

Protein namesi
Recommended name:
Appetite-regulating hormone
Alternative name(s):
Growth hormone secretagogue
Growth hormone-releasing peptide
Motilin-related peptide
Cleaved into the following 3 chains:
Gene namesi
Name:Ghrl
OrganismiRattus norvegicus (Rat)
Taxonomic identifieri10116 [NCBI]
Taxonomic lineageiEukaryotaMetazoaChordataCraniataVertebrataEuteleostomiMammaliaEutheriaEuarchontogliresGliresRodentiaSciurognathiMuroideaMuridaeMurinaeRattus
ProteomesiUP000002494: Chromosome 4

Organism-specific databases

RGDi632283. Ghrl.

Subcellular locationi

GO - Cellular componenti

  1. axon Source: UniProtKB
  2. cytoplasm Source: Ensembl
  3. extracellular region Source: UniProtKB
  4. extracellular space Source: UniProtKB
Complete GO annotation...

Keywords - Cellular componenti

Secreted

PTM / Processingi

Molecule processing

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Signal peptidei1 – 23232 PublicationsAdd
BLAST
Peptidei24 – 5128GhrelinPRO_0000019209Add
BLAST
Propeptidei52 – 7524Removed in mature form1 PublicationPRO_0000019210Add
BLAST
Peptidei76 – 9823Obestatin-23PRO_0000045146Add
BLAST
Peptidei86 – 9813Obestatin-13CuratedPRO_0000045147Add
BLAST
Propeptidei99 – 11719Removed in mature formPRO_0000045148Add
BLAST

Amino acid modifications

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Lipidationi26 – 261O-octanoyl serine2 Publications
Modified residuei98 – 981Leucine amide1 Publication

Post-translational modificationi

O-octanoylation is essential for ghrelin activity. The replacement of Ser-26 by aromatic tryptophan preserves ghrelin activity (PubMed:10604470, PubMed:10801861).2 Publications
Amidation of Leu-98 is essential for obestatin activity.1 Publication

Keywords - PTMi

Amidation, Lipoprotein

Proteomic databases

PaxDbiQ9QYH7.

PTM databases

PhosphoSiteiQ9QYH7.

Expressioni

Tissue specificityi

Ghrelin is broadly expressed with higher expression in the stomach. Very low levels are detected in the hypothalamus, heart, lung, pancreas, intestine and adipose tissue. Obestatin is most highly expressed in jejunum, and also found in duodenum, stomach, pituitary, ileum, liver, hypothalamus and heart. Expressed in low levels in pancreas, cerebellum, cerebrum, kidney, testis, ovary colon and lung.1 Publication

Gene expression databases

GenevestigatoriQ9QYH7.

Family & Domainsi

Sequence similaritiesi

Belongs to the motilin family.Curated

Keywords - Domaini

Signal

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGiNOG45924.
GeneTreeiENSGT00390000004064.
HOGENOMiHOG000236303.
HOVERGENiHBG018522.
InParanoidiQ9QYH7.
KOiK05254.
OMAiSLGTICS.
OrthoDBiEOG741Z4K.
PhylomeDBiQ9QYH7.
TreeFamiTF336219.

Family and domain databases

InterProiIPR006737. Motilin_assoc.
IPR006738. Motilin_ghrelin.
IPR005441. Preproghrelin.
[Graphical view]
PANTHERiPTHR14122. PTHR14122. 1 hit.
PfamiPF04643. Motilin_assoc. 1 hit.
PF04644. Motilin_ghrelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view]
PRINTSiPR01624. GHRELIN.

Sequences (2)i

Sequence statusi: Complete.

Sequence processingi: The displayed sequence is further processed into a mature form.

This entry describes 2 isoformsi produced by alternative splicing. Align

Isoform 1 (identifier: Q9QYH7-1) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

Also known as: Ghrelin

This isoform has been chosen as the 'canonical' sequence. All positional information in this entry refers to it. This is also the sequence that appears in the downloadable versions of the entry.

« Hide

        10         20         30         40         50
MVSSATICSL LLLSMLWMDM AMAGSSFLSP EHQKAQQRKE SKKPPAKLQP
60 70 80 90 100
RALEGWLHPE DRGQAEEAEE ELEIRFNAPF DVGIKLSGAQ YQQHGRALGK
110
FLQDILWEEV KEAPANK
Length:117
Mass (Da):13,176
Last modified:May 1, 2000 - v1
Checksum:i8857546FE51A7691
GO
Isoform 2 (identifier: Q9QYH7-2) [UniParc]FASTAAdd to Basket

Also known as: des-Gln14-ghrelin

The sequence of this isoform differs from the canonical sequence as follows:
     37-37: Missing.

Show »
Length:116
Mass (Da):13,048
Checksum:i88544ECA032C24F2
GO

Mass spectrometryi

Isoform 1 : Molecular mass is 3314.9±0.7 Da from positions 24 - 51. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Isoform 2 : Molecular mass is 3187.1±0.6 Da from positions 24 - 50. Determined by ESI. 1 Publication
Molecular mass is 2516.3 Da from positions 76 - 98. 1 Publication

Alternative sequence

Feature keyPosition(s)LengthDescriptionGraphical viewFeature identifierActions
Alternative sequencei37 – 371Missing in isoform 2. 1 PublicationVSP_003248

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029433 mRNA. Translation: BAA89370.1.
AB035699 mRNA. Translation: BAB11956.1.
PIRiB59316.
RefSeqiNP_067701.1. NM_021669.2. [Q9QYH7-1]
UniGeneiRn.42103.

Genome annotation databases

EnsembliENSRNOT00000014103; ENSRNOP00000014103; ENSRNOG00000010349. [Q9QYH7-1]
GeneIDi59301.
KEGGirno:59301.
UCSCiRGD:632283. rat. [Q9QYH7-1]

Keywords - Coding sequence diversityi

Alternative splicing

Cross-referencesi

Web resourcesi

Protein Spotlight

Gut feelings - Issue 66 of January 2006

Sequence databases

Select the link destinations:
EMBLi
GenBanki
DDBJi
Links Updated
AB029433 mRNA. Translation: BAA89370.1 .
AB035699 mRNA. Translation: BAB11956.1 .
PIRi B59316.
RefSeqi NP_067701.1. NM_021669.2. [Q9QYH7-1 ]
UniGenei Rn.42103.

3D structure databases

ModBasei Search...
MobiDBi Search...

PTM databases

PhosphoSitei Q9QYH7.

Proteomic databases

PaxDbi Q9QYH7.

Protocols and materials databases

Structural Biology Knowledgebase Search...

Genome annotation databases

Ensembli ENSRNOT00000014103 ; ENSRNOP00000014103 ; ENSRNOG00000010349 . [Q9QYH7-1 ]
GeneIDi 59301.
KEGGi rno:59301.
UCSCi RGD:632283. rat. [Q9QYH7-1 ]

Organism-specific databases

CTDi 51738.
RGDi 632283. Ghrl.

Phylogenomic databases

eggNOGi NOG45924.
GeneTreei ENSGT00390000004064.
HOGENOMi HOG000236303.
HOVERGENi HBG018522.
InParanoidi Q9QYH7.
KOi K05254.
OMAi SLGTICS.
OrthoDBi EOG741Z4K.
PhylomeDBi Q9QYH7.
TreeFami TF336219.

Enzyme and pathway databases

Reactomei REACT_250028. Peptide ligand-binding receptors.
REACT_250291. Synthesis, secretion, and deacylation of Ghrelin.
REACT_263374. G alpha (q) signalling events.

Miscellaneous databases

NextBioi 611837.
PROi Q9QYH7.

Gene expression databases

Genevestigatori Q9QYH7.

Family and domain databases

InterProi IPR006737. Motilin_assoc.
IPR006738. Motilin_ghrelin.
IPR005441. Preproghrelin.
[Graphical view ]
PANTHERi PTHR14122. PTHR14122. 1 hit.
Pfami PF04643. Motilin_assoc. 1 hit.
PF04644. Motilin_ghrelin. 1 hit.
[Graphical view ]
PRINTSi PR01624. GHRELIN.
ProtoNeti Search...

Publicationsi

  1. "Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide from stomach."
    Kojima M., Hosoda H., Date Y., Nakazato M., Matsuo H., Kangawa K.
    Nature 402:656-660(1999) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORM 1), PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 24-51, MASS SPECTROMETRY, ACYLATION AT SER-26.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Stomach.
  2. "Purification and characterization of rat des-Gln14-ghrelin, a second endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor."
    Hosoda H., Kojima M., Matsuo H., Kangawa K.
    J. Biol. Chem. 275:21995-22000(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA] (ISOFORMS 1 AND 2), PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 24-51, MASS SPECTROMETRY, ACYLATION AT SER-26.
    Strain: Sprague-Dawley.
    Tissue: Stomach.
  3. "Obestatin, a peptide encoded by the ghrelin gene, opposes ghrelin's effects on food intake."
    Zhang J.V., Ren P.G., Avsian-Kretchmer O., Luo C.W., Rauch R., Klein C., Hsueh A.J.
    Science 310:996-999(2005) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: PROTEIN SEQUENCE OF 76-95, FUNCTION OF OBESTATIN, CHARACTERIZATION, AMIDATION AT LEU-98, MASS SPECTROMETRY, INTERACTION WITH GPR39.
  4. "Ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin: two major forms of rat ghrelin peptide in gastrointestinal tissue."
    Hosoda H., Kojima M., Matsuo H., Kangawa K.
    Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 279:909-913(2000) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: TISSUE SPECIFICITY.
  5. Cited for: STRUCTURE-ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP.
  6. "Ghrelin: discovery of the natural endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor."
    Kojima M., Hosoda H., Matsuo H., Kangawa K.
    Trends Endocrinol. Metab. 12:118-122(2001) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
    Cited for: REVIEW.
  7. Cited for: FUNCTION OF OBESTATIN.

Entry informationi

Entry nameiGHRL_RAT
AccessioniPrimary (citable) accession number: Q9QYH7
Secondary accession number(s): Q9ET69
Entry historyi
Integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot: December 13, 2001
Last sequence update: May 1, 2000
Last modified: November 26, 2014
This is version 109 of the entry and version 1 of the sequence. [Complete history]
Entry statusiReviewed (UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot)
Annotation programChordata Protein Annotation Program

Miscellaneousi

Caution

PubMed:16284174 reports obestatin as ligand of GPR39. However, PubMed:17289961 and others are unable to reproduce these results. It also seems to be unclear whether obestatin has opposite effects on food intake compared with ghrelin.Curated

Keywords - Technical termi

Complete proteome, Direct protein sequencing, Reference proteome

Documents

  1. Protein Spotlight
    Protein Spotlight articles and cited UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot entries
  2. SIMILARITY comments
    Index of protein domains and families

External Data

Dasty 3